ENSC exam 3

  1. The hydrologic compartment that contains the greatest amount of fresh water is
    ice and snow.
  2. Overuse of groundwater can lead to
    Aquifier depletion, subsidence, saltwater intrusion
  3. Most water is withdrawn from surface waters and aquifers for _______.
  4. Factories, sewage treatment plants, and oil wells are __________ sources of water pollution.
  5. _________ sources of water pollution are relatively easy to monitor and regulate while _____________ sources of water pollution are difficult to monitor and clean up.
    point; nonpoint
  6. From an environmental viewpoint, the best approach to reducing flood risks is
    Floodplain management
  7. Which of the following statements about lakes is true?
    Lakes are more vulnerable than streams to contamination by plant nutrients, oil, pesticides, and toxic substances that can destroy bottom life.
  8. The two main gases making up the lower atmosphere are
    nitrogen and oxygen.
  9. The Coriolis effect is caused by the
    rotation of the Earth.
  10. The frequency and severity of smog in an area depends least upon the
    size of the ozone hole over the Arctic.
  11. Tall chimneys
    are an output approach to pollution.
  12. Most of the excessive carbon dioxide that is expected to cause global warming is generated by
    burning of fossil fuels and clearing of forests.
  13. Proponents of climate change say that given what we know about the probability of the greenhouse effect, the best thing to do is
    focus on the development of technological advances to help decrease the effects of climate change.
  14. Primary pollutants are those that are
    released directly in dangerous forms.
  15. ________ is/are examples of secondary pollutants.
    Photochemical oxidants
  16. ___________ ozone is harmful, damaging plants and human health while ozone at the _________ level screens out mutagenic ultraviolet radiation.
    Tropospheric; stratosphere
  17. The “ozone hole” is a depletion currently most serious
    near the poles.
  18. One of the principal ways lakes suffer from acid deposition is that
    fish eggs die and fish populations fall.
  19. Stream channelization
    increases the rate of water discharge.
  20. The main human activity that increases flooding is
    Destroying vegetation
  21. Which statement about bottled water is correct?
    Oftentimes, bottled water simply comes from the tap.
  22. What are some problems involved with the generation of freshwater by desalinization of salt water?
    expensive, uses fossil fuels, kills aquatic life, creates salty wastes
  23. What can happen if too much groundwater is removed from an aquifer that is near an ocean?
    Seawater can enter the aquifer, making the water too salty to use.
  24. About 75% of Earth is covered by water. Almost 98% of this is _____ and is found in oceans; the remaining 2.5% is fresh water, and most of this is located ______.
    saltwater; in ice sheets and glaciers
  25. Most groundwater is stored in ______.
  26. This type of water pollution comes from livestock runoff, sewage discharge, and septic tanks, and can spread diseases such as cholera.
  27. What happens to water bodies, such as the Aral Sea, when water is diverted away from the water body?
    It destroys the water body, because the waters that feed it are diverted to other places, for example, to irrigate cotton fields.
  28. If a water body has an excess amount of nutrients, particularly nitrogen, ________ will grow and cause eutrophication.
  29. Why is most groundwater considered nonrenewable?
    The recharge rate is not fast enough to match our withdrawal of groundwater.
  30. Dams built across rivers have significant impacts. Which of the following is not an impact of dams?
    Downstream flooding, while rare, is more dangerous after a dam is built.
  31. What is the end result of eutrophication of a body of water?
    Suffocation of higher organisms, such as fish and shellfish
  32. The areas where water infiltrates Earth and reaches an aquifer are called ______.
    recharge zones
  33. Which of the following activities is not allowed under the U.S. Clean Water Act (1972)?
    It is illegal to discharge pollution from a point source into a water body without a permit.
  34. Generalized global air circulation and precipitation patterns are caused by __________.
    rising, warm, moist air masses that cool and release precipitation as they rise and then, at high altitude, cool and sink back to the surface as dry air masses after moving north or south of the tropics
  35. Which one of the following environmental challenges has so far not shown a slowdown, partial recovery, or significant recovery?
    global warning
  36. Which federal agency is responsible for tracking trends in national emissions of primary pollutants from all sources?
  37. Where would a person be most exposed to photochemical smog?
    Los Angeles, California
  38. What is a major consequence of a thermal inversion?
    Air pollutants become trapped and accumulate below the inversion layer.
  39. Which one of the following environmental challenges has so far not shown a slowdown, partial recovery, or significant recovery?
    climate change
  40. Which greenhouse gas is the most significant contributor to global warming?
    carbon dioxide
  41. What can ice cores tell us about Earth's history?
    The atmospheric composition, greenhouse gases, and temperature trends from hundreds of thousands of years ago
  42. What is the relationship between global warming and climate change?
    Global warming refers to an increase in Earth's average temperature, while climate change encompases a wide variety of changes in Earth's climate.
  43. Which of the following are the main greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change?
    CH4 (methane), CO2 (carbon dioxide), N2O (nitrous oxide)
  44. What can be said about using computer models in climate change research?
    Computer models can be used to forecast future climate change.
  45. Which of the following greenhouse gases (GHGs) have decreased in the past few decades?
    None; all of these have increased.
  46. Which of the following has been predicted, and observed, as a consequence of global climate change?
    wildfires, sea ice, coastal flooding, dist of species
  47. The main cause of the increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere over the past 150 years is __________.
    the clearing of large areas of forests and burning of fossil fuels
  48. One way to slow the rate of climate change could be through fertilizing the ocean with nutrients such as iron. This will increase the growth of algae. How would this reduce the greenhouse effect?
    Algae would use CO2 in photosynthesis, reducing atmospheric CO2, which would otherwise trap heat in the atmosphere.
  49. What will be the effect of global warming on global species diversity?
    Overall, biodiversity will drop.
  50. Why is the greenhouse effect necessary for life on Earth?
    It heats the Earth's surface.
  51. Which of the following is not an adaptation strategy for addressing future climate change?
    Switching to renewable energy sources
  52. In 2007, how did the U.S. Supreme Court weigh in on the climate change issue?
    The Supreme Court ruled that carbon dioxide was a pollutant and that the EPA could regulate it under the Clean Air Act.
  53. How can an El Niño/La Niña Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affect weather?
    drought, floods, wetter winters,
  54. What was the main goal of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol?
    To reduce emissions of six greenhouse gases based on each country's history and phase of development
  55. Which of the following is not a mitigation strategy for addressing future climate change?
    Modifying water management practices to cope with drought
  56. So far, global climate change is having its greatest effect on __________.
    artic regions
  57. In which terrestrial area is global warming most likely to allow coniferous trees to encroach?
    Arctic tundra
  58. Which of the following is not a prediction of human-caused climate change?
    Lower sea levels due to increased drainage
  59. By burning less gasoline, a hybrid car produces less CO2, which might reduce __________.
    global climate change
  60. Which of these countries do you suppose produces the most carbon dioxide per person?
  61. Which of the following is related to coral bleaching?
    Climate change
  62. Considering the current scientific literature on global warming, which statement best summarizes the most recent findings?
    Worldwide, scientists agree that there is overwhelming evidence that the rise in temperature is due to increased greenhouse gas emissions that come from burning fossil fuels and deforestation.
  63. Climate change, as demonstrated by observations such as the rise in average ambient temperatures and the melting of glaciers, has already had many effects on living organisms. Which of the following might best offer a solution to this problem?
    Limit the burning of fossil fuels and limit the loss of forested areas.
  64. Which region on Earth receives the most solar radiation per unit area over a year?
  65. In temperate latitudes, surface winds tend to blow __________.
    away from the equator
  66. When discussing air pollution, what is a primary pollutant?
    A pollutant that can cause harm directly or can react with other chemicals to form harmful substances
  67. Which statement about radon is not correct?
    It is a major problem in developing nations, because very few people in developed nations are exposed to radon.
  68. What is the major function of stratospheric ozone?
    Ozone molecules protect life on Earth's surface by absorbing incoming ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun.
  69. Which major international treaty agreed to phase out production and use of CFCs to protect stratospheric ozone?
    Montreal Protocol
  70. What is a major health effect of particulate air pollution?
  71. Which secondary air pollutant is found mainly around cities and is formed from burning coal or oil, which releases a combination of soot, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide?
    Industrial smog
  72. What is the main source of stratospheric-ozone-depleting pollutants?
    Human-made chlorofluorocarbons
  73. What is the main difference between climate and weather?
    Climate typically describes longer-term conditions.
  74. Approximately 80 percent of our atmosphere is made up of which of the following?
  75. One reason areas near the equator get more rainfall than areas about 30 degrees north or south do is that __________.
    air near the equator rises, cooling as it rises and losing its ability to hold water vapor
  76. In tropical areas, surface winds tend to blow toward the equator because __________.
    equatorial air is heated by the sun and rises
  77. Much of the damage to forests from acid precipitation is due to chemical interactions with the soil, which is caused by __________.
    insoluble toxic metal ions, such as aluminum, becoming soluble, which builds up concentrations in the soil and negatively affects the roots of plants
  78. Acid deposition is formed when _____ and _____, released from combustion of fossil fuels, reacts with oxygen and water in the atmosphere.
    sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx)
  79. A ________ occurs when a layer of cool air is trapped under a layer of warm air in the troposphere.
    thermal (temperature) inversion
  80. What is not a major impact of lead pollution on human health?
  81. Which form of pollution would be decreased by using catalytic converters on cars?
    Photochemical smog
  82. Which of the following is not a primary pollutant?
    Industrial smog
  83. The climate in an area is determined primarily by analyzing __________.
    the area's average annual temperature and precipitation and annual variation in temperature and precipitation
  84. Why is using water for generation of hydroelectric power considered nonconsumptive use of the water?
    It uses water and then returns it to the environment.
  85. Which statement is true regarding the world's ocean fisheries?
    Most of the world's fisheries are being fully exploited, and many have collapsed.
  86. Which is the best, long-term solution to controlling eutrophication?
    Reducing the inputs of nutrients and sediments into water bodies
  87. What is the major way we could decrease water use in agriculture?
    Use drip-irrigation techniques
  88. Scientists have determined that _______ is/are the major causes of "dead zones" in the Gulf of Mexico and other water bodies.
    nutrients, such as nitrogen, from fertilizers and other sources
  89. All the land that contributes water to a particular stream or river is the _______ for that stream or river.
  90. Which of the following is not a form of point source water pollution?
    urban stormweather
  91. Why is the water in a "young" (oligotrophic) lake usually clear?
    agricultural, industrial, municipal (domestic)
Card Set
ENSC exam 3