Research Test 1 Review

  1. Clinical Research
    Structured process of investing facts and theories and exploring connections
  2. Scientific paradigms
    ways of looking at the world that define both problems and range of legitimate evidence of contributes to solutions
  3. 5 Sources of Knowledge
    • -Tradition
    • -Authority
    • -Trail and Error
    • -Logical Reasoning
    • -Scientific Method
  4. Tradition
    • -common foundation for communication and interaction within a society or
    • profession

    • Belief system, inherit knowledge and accept
    • precedent w/o external validation

    • Problems – not evaluated for validity, tested
    • against better alternatives, sole reliance on precedent as reason
  5. Authority
    -expertise of specialist, specialized training or experience

    Use them w/o evidence

    Use when evidence is unavailable

    • Jeopardize professional responsibilities if not
    • scientifically documented
  6. Trial and Error
    Attempts one solution and evaluates its effect

    • -If effects reasonable then adopted
    • -If not, another solution is tried
    • -No other basis for making a decision
    • -Haphazard and unsystematic nature
    • -Knowledge obtained usually not shared, making it
    • inaccessible to others
  7. 2 Types of Logical Reasoning
    Deductive and Inductive Reasoning
  8. Deductive Reasoning
    Acceptance of a general proposition or remise and subsequent inferences.

    • -Greater the accuracy of premise = greater accuracy of conclusion
    • -Produces a testable hypothesis
    • -Limitations - dependent on truth of its premise
    • -Based on existing knowledge = cannot be source of new knowledge
  9. Inductive Reasoning
    • Developing generalizations from specific observations
    • -Facts gathered on a sample of events could lead to inferences about the whole
    • -Limitation - quality based on specific observations
    • -Need to observe all possible examples of event
    • -Incomplete observations
  10. Scientific Method
    Incorporating elements of deductions and induction in a systematic and controlled analysis of phenomena
  11. Quantitative Research
    Measurements of outcomes using numerical data under standardized conditions
  12. Qualitative Research
    • Deep understanding of phenomenon through narrative description
    • -Obtained under less structured conditions
    • -Measurements – open ended questions, interviews,
    • observations
    • -Describe state of conditions or associations,
    • formulate theory, or general hypothesis
  13. Basic Research
    • Obtain empirical data used to develop, refine, or test a theory
    • -Acquisition of new knowledge w/o reference
    • -“bench research”
    • -goal – intellectual curiosity, new knowledge for
    • own sake
  14. Applied Research
    • Immediate practical problems w/ functional applications and testing the theories that direct practice
    • -Most clinical research
  15. Translational Research
    Application of basic scientific findings to clinicaly relevant issues and generating scientific questions based on clinical dilemmas.
  16. Experimental Research
    • Manipulates and controls one or more variables and observes results on other variables.
    • -Purpose: Compare conditions or intervention groups, cause-and-effect relationship
    • -Randomized Controlled Trial - "Gold Standard'
  17. Non-Experimental (Observational) Research
    • Generally more descriptive or exploratory in nature
    • -No direct control of variables
  18. Exploratory Research
    • Examines a phenomenon of interest and explores its dimensions
    • -How it relates to other factors
    • -Generate relationships and predictions
    • -Methodological studies - correlational methods to demonstrate reliability and validity
  19. Descriptive Research
    Attempts to describe a group of individuals on a set of variables to document their characteristics
  20. Systematic Reviews
    Comprehensive analysis of full range of literature on a particular topic, intervention, diagnostic test, or prognostic factors
  21. Meta-analysis
    Statistically combining findings from several studies to obtain a summary analysis
  22. Target population
    The group of individuals to which the results of the study will apply
  23. Research Rationale
    • -Will support the research question
    • -Guide decisions designing the study
    • -Provide basis for interpreting results
  24. Factor Variables
    Represent a concept, can have more than 1 value
  25. Independent Variables
    Predictor variables, predict or cause a given outcome
  26. Dependent Variables
    Outcome variable, response or effect that varies depending on independent variable
  27. Operational Definition
    Defines a variable according to its unique meaning within a study
  28. Specific aims/guiding questions
    Describe the study's purpose
  29. Hypothesis
    A declarative statement that predicts the relationship between the independent and dependent variables and specifying the population that will be studied
  30. Deductive Hypothesis
    Based on theoretical premise, allowing clinician to predict outsomes
  31. Inductive Hypothesis
    Based on trends, regularities, patterns, or relationships
  32. Research Hypothesis
    States researcher's true expectations of results
  33. Null Hypothesis
    Express no difference or no relationship between ind. and dep. variables
  34. Simple Hypothesis
    1 ind. and dep. variable
  35. Complex Hypothesis
    More than 1 ind. or dep. variable
  36. Primary Source
    • Report or document provided directly by the person who authored it
    • -Mostly professional journals
  37. Secondary Source
    • Description or review of 1 or more studies presented by someone other than the original author.
    • -Textbooks, newspapers
    • -Tend to provide insufficient, inaccurate, or biased info
  38. Continuous varibale
    • Theoretically take on any value to represent quantities of characteristics according to certain rules
    • -50.5 degrees, 50.3 degrees
  39. Discrete variables
    • Whole units
    • -1,7,5
  40. Dichotomous variables
    • Assign number to qualitative variables
    • -e.g. Gender = Male, Female
  41. Precision
    Exactness of measure
  42. Constructs
    • Associated with some value or vales that are assumed to represent original variable
    • -Muscular strength- broken down into type of contractions, strain resistance, joint position, etc.
  43. Nominal Measurement
    • Classifactory scale
    • -Categorize subjects e.g., Male = 1, Female =2
  44. Ordinal Measurement
    • Categorizes by rank ordered on the basis of operationally defined characteristics or property
    • -Does not know actual distance between units
  45. Interval scale
    • Rank order characteristics of ordinal but also demonstrates known and equal distance or intervals between units of measure
    • -e.g. no absolute zero
  46. Ratio Measurement
    Interval scale with absolute zero
  47. Reliability
    • Extent to which a measurement is consistent and free from error
    • -Conceptualized as reproducibility or dependability
  48. Validity
    Assures that a test is measuring what it is intended to measure
  49. Measurement error
    The difference between the true value and the observed value
  50. Systematic errors
    • Predictable errors of measurement
    • -Occur in one direction - Over or under estimating
  51. Random error
    Measurements due to change and can affect a subject's score in an unpredictable way from trial to trial
  52. Regression towards the mean
    Extremes move closer to mean with more trials
  53. Variance
    A measure of variability or differences among scores within a sample
  54. Reliability coefficient
    • 0.0 = no reliability
    • 1.0 = perfect reliability
  55. Test-retest reliability
    • Establish that an instrument is capable of measuring a variable with consistency
    • -e.g. Identical test on two separate occasions
  56. Rater Reliability
    Human observer/rater part of the measurement system
  57. Intrarater reliability
    Stability of data recorded by one individual across two or more trials
  58. Interrater Reliability
    Variation between two or more raters who measure the same group of subjects
  59. Alternative form reliability
    Alternative to test-retest reliability
  60. Inernal Consistency (homogeneity)
    Extent to which items measure various aspects of the same characterisitcs and nothing else
  61. Generalizability theory
    • Results define the universe
    • -Testing condtions must be the same
  62. Facet
    Relation to a set of specific testing conditions
  63. Minimal Detectable Difference (MDD)
    Define the amount of change in a variable that must be achieved to reflect a true difference
  64. Population Specific Reliability
    Reliability established on subjects from one population cannot automatically be attributed to other populations
  65. Measurement validity
    Instrument measures what it is intended to measure
  66. Specificity of validity
    Instrument is appropriate for the test (measures item of interest)
  67. Face Validity
    The instrument appears to test what it is supposed to and plausible method
  68. Content Validity
    • Adequacy with which this universe is sampled by a test
    • -Does not contain all the elements that reflect the variable being studied
    • -Free of influences of factors irrelevant to purpose of study
  69. Criterion-related Validity
    • Most practical and objective approach
    • -e.g. Investigate HR (target test) as indicatry O2 consumption (criterion measure)
  70. Concurrent measure
    • Measurement to be validated and criterion measure taken relatively same time
    • -Both reflect same score
    • -Useful for testing new/untested tools
  71. Predictive measure
    Establish a measure that's valid predictor of futur criterion score
  72. Construct Validity
    • Ability of instrument to measure an abstract concept
    • -Convergent: 2 measures on the same phenomenon will have similar test results
    • -Discriminant: 2 measures on the same phenomenon will have different results
    • -Factor Analysis: construct contains 1 or more underlying dimensions or different theoretical components
  73. Change/different score
    • Difference between outcome and initial scores
    • -Shows/demonstrates change
  74. Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID)
    the lowest amount that can be considered change
  75. Criterion-referenced test
    • Fixed standard that represents acceptable model or level of performance
    • -Examine proficiency or performance of skill
    • -Norm-referenced - "Normal" values determined by testing large populations of certain profiles
    • -Standard deviation
    • -Establish placement for diagnosis
  76. Cross-validation
    Trying out previously developed test on a new group of characteristics as close as possible to original
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Research Test 1 Review
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