Vertebrae - Clinical Correlates

  1. osteoarthritis
    • erosion of articular cartilage of weght bearing joints, like those in vert. column
    • most common form of arthritis
  2. osteoarthritis most common in what region?
    cervical region
  3. what does bone try to do when arthritis occurs?
    • tries to remodel cartilage after it is gone by creating ostephytes to compensate
    • BUT as they grow, they push on nerves in IV foramen > causes irritation of spinal nerves
  4. whiplash
    • cervical hyperextension injury
    • associated usually with rear-end vehicular crash
    • properly adjusted headrests can greatly reduce this injury
  5. strain vs sprain
    • strain = muscle tear
    • sprain = ligament tear
  6. what heals faster bone or muscle?
  7. jefferson fracture
    • four part fracture of C1
    • caused by fall on vertex/head
    • pts have upper neck pain but can be neurologically intact
  8. hangman fracture
    • caused by hyperextension of head on neck
    • bipedicle fracture of C2
    • anterior displacement of C2 and C3
    • results in quadriplegia or death
  9. spondylosis
    • fracture of pars interaticularis which connects superior and inferior articular processes
    • the interlocking mechanism is broken
    • common in older ppl
  10. scotty dog sign is uself in identifying what fracture?
  11. spondylolisthesis
    sometimes stress fracture of spondylosis can weaken the bone so much that it cannot maintain propr position in the spine > vertebra starts to shift or slip out of place
  12. where is spondylolisthesis common?
    • between L5 and S1
    • L5 will tilt downward
  13. disease of zygoapophyseal joints
    • important because theyre close to IV foramina
    • causes pain along distribution patterns of dermatomes & spasm in muscles derived from assoc. myotomes
  14. sacralization
    • L5 vertebra is partially or totally fused with sacrum
    • b/c L5/S1 is not very strong, the L4/L5 level is likely to degenerate in these cases
  15. kyphosis
    • abnormally increased thoracic curvature
    • commonly seen in the elderly
    • usually caused by osteoporosis > resulting in anterior vertebral erosion or compression fracture
  16. lordosis
    • excessive lumbar curvature - pulled forward
    • aka sway back or low back
    • seen in association with weak trunk muscles, pregnancy, obesity
  17. scoliosis
    abnormal lateral curvature of spine, accompanied by rotation of vertebrae
  18. rupture of transverse ligament
    dens will push on spinal cord > can cause quadriplegia
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Vertebrae - Clinical Correlates