Chapter 7 Modern American History

  1. Henry Ford
    introduced a series of methods and ideas (Model-T, mass production) that revolutionized production, wages, working conditions, and daily life
  2. Mass Production
    rapid manufacture of large numbers of identical products, contributes to economic boom
  3. Assembly Line
    arrangement of equipment and workers in which work passes from operation to operation in direct line until the product is assembled. Made for quicker production and lowered price of products
  4. Consumer Revolution
    flood of new, affordable goods in the decades post WWI; stimulated economic growth and progress
  5. Installment Buying
    method of purchase in which the buyer makes a small down payment, and then pays off the rest of the debt in regular monthly payments; gives more people the opportunity to invest
  6. Bull Market
    period of rising stock prices, many were too confident in the market and this provided a shaky ground
  7. Buying on Margin
    margin system of buying stocks in which the buyer pays a small percentage of the purchase price while the broker advances the rest
  8. Teapot Dome Scandal
    Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall took bribes for leasing government oil reserves and Harding signed it off (approved); once exposed, the scandal makes President Harding look bad
  9. Washington Naval Disarmament Conference
    meeting held in 1921 and 1922 where world leaders agreed to limit construction of warships to ultimately try to prevent war
  10. Kellogg-Briand Pact
    1928 agreement in which many nations agree to outlaw war; importance- to prevent war
  11. Dawes Plan
    agreement in which the US loaned money to Germany, allowing Germany to make reparation payments to Britain and France
  12. Modernism
    trend that emphasized sciences and secular values over traditional ideas about religion, linked to more urban areas
  13. Fundamentalism
    a movement or attitude stressing strict and literal adherence to a set of basic principles (using the Bible), more common in rural areas
  14. Scopes Trial
    1925 trial of a Tennessee schoolteacher (John Scopes) for teaching Darwin's theory of evolution in a biology class, ended up fined for $100
  15. Quota System
    arrangement that limited the number of immigrants who could enter the US from specific countries (came from Emergency Quota Act and National Origins Act)
  16. Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
    organization that promotes hatred and discrimination against specific ethnic and religious groups
  17. Prohibition
    the forbidding by law of the manufacture, transport, and sale of alcohol
  18. 18th Amendment
    constitutional amendment banning the manufacture, distribution, and sale of alcohol in the US
  19. Volstead Act
    law enacted by Congress to enforce the eighteenth amendment
  20. Bootlegger
    one who sells illegal alcohol; in effect promotes crime
  21. Charlie Chaplin
    the most popular silent film star of the 1920s, played the Little Tramp, silent film reached globally
  22. The Jazz Singer
    first movie with sound synchronized to the action
  23. Flapper
    young woman from the 1920s who defied traditional rules of conduct and dress, paved way for women to keep progressing
  24. Sigmund Freund
    Austrian pyschologist who contributed to literary and artistic modernism in the 1920s, developed idea of subconscious
  25. "Lost Generation"
    term for American writers of the 1920s marked by disillusion with WWI and search for new sense of meaning
  26. F. Scott Fitzgerald
    • novelist who explored the reality of the American dream of wealth, success, and emotional fulfillment
    • works: This Side of Paradise, The Great Gatsby
  27. Ernest Hemingway
    novelist who explored similar themes to Fitzgerald but in a new idiom; he worked to develop a writing style that reflected his insights
  28. Marcus Garvey
    advocated seperation of races to promote universal black nationalism
  29. Jazz
    American musical form developed by African Americans, based on improvisation and blending blues, ragtime, and European-based popular music
  30. Louis Armstrong
    "unofficial ambassador of jazz", legend for improv on the trumpet and he influenced the development of jazz, also pioneered "scat"
  31. Bessie Smith
    a jazz vocal soloist known as the "Empress of the Blues", highest paid African American entertainer in the 1920s
  32. Harlem Renaissance
    period during the 1920s in which African American novelists, poets, and artists celebrated their culture
  33. Claude McKay
    Jamaican immigrant, novelist, and poet, was a very militant writer, showed ordinary African Americans struggling for dignity and advancement in the face of discrimination and economic hardships
  34. Langston Hughes
    one of the most powerful black literary voices of the decade, focused on celebrating African American culture and life
  35. Zora Neale Hurston
    African American writer who wrote folk tales and novels about how black and white women wanted independence and advancement in society
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Chapter 7 Modern American History
modern american history honors chapter 7 terms and people