Who is considered the father of microbiology?
Anton von Leeuenhoek?
Who is considered the father of Epidemiology when he tracked an outbreak of Cholera?
John Snow, London, 1853
Who wondered if diseases were caused by microorgansims and introduced antiseptic techniques into surgical methods?
First person to isolate a causative agent of an infections disease
First to treat syphilis with Salvarasan; introduced concept of chemotherapy
Created vaccination using idea that milkmaids never got cow pox because they were exposed to it and therefore introduced the idea of vaccination.
Debunked theory of Spontaneous Generation
Introduced concept of "diseases" in wine/beer caused by microorganisms
Discovered heat resistant spores, a dormant form of life which is very heat stable
First to isolate a filterable agent that goes through filters which causes diseases; One of two fathers of virology
Discovered penicillium by accident on a plate that he was studying which was killing bacteria
Microbiology is the study of......
microscopic organisms and viruses and thier roles in human disease as well as beneficial processes
What is a strain?
- Specific subgrouping of the species that is different from other subgroups of the species in some way.
- E coli -- normally harmless in our intestines
- E coli H7:O157 -- specific strain that is harmful and can kill
What is an organism?
A living thing with metabolic activity and is capable of self-reproduction
Acellular (no cells). Ex: viruses
Process of gentle heating to inactivate contaminating microbes
Swann neck flask
flask with a narrow opening which was boiled to sterilize and then neck bent. Air gasses allowed to pass through but dust particles could not get in
Used by John Tyndall and Louis Pasteur in the lab; discovered that they had heat resistant spores
The basic smallest functional unit of any living organism; living; capable of dividing and becoming two cells; has metabolic activity
A group of repoductively isolated individuals that tend to only mate within that group
Reproduction w/out external assistance. Will make another organism that will eventually become like it.
Two types of organisms come together to produce another organism like themselves (plants and animals)
Producing more of itself without help of any other organism (bacteria)
- describes a strain, its antibody. "Grouping with antibodies". Usually characterized by the antibodies they react with.
- EX: E. coli H7:O157 reacts w/ anitbody 7 in panel H and antibody 157 in panel O (O-antigen)
Having cellular structures enclosed by membranes. "Eu" means true. Karyote = nucleus.
No distinguishable membraneous stuctures. "Pro" means before
- Very large compounds:
- 1. proteins
- 2. sugars
- 3. nucleic acids
- 4. lipids
organic cofactor that cannot be made by the cell that requires them Ex. humans need calcium.
- Not a macromolecule; often organic.
- Required for specific function to occur in cell
Polymers of nucleotides that store and transfer genetic information within a cell
- formed by combining smaller molecules into larger ones
- means many
- DNA & RNA
- Compounds composed of nitrogenous base linked to a ribose or deoxyribose which in turn are linked to a phosphate
- Nitrogen containing compound used for making nucleotides to build DNA and RNA; there are 5 kinds:
- 1. Cytosine
- 2. Thymine (only in DNA)
- 3. Adenine
- 4. Guanine
- 5. Uracil (only in RNA)
- DNA code that will result in the making of a protein or functional unit of RNA
- specific unit of information
- made up of nucleotides that contain deoxyribose
- long strand of nucleotides
- contains many different genes
- nucleotides which contain ribose
- single strand
RNA transcriptase containing the information needed for synthesizing a specific polypeptide; brings the message
- decoders of the messenger RNA
- takes the code in the messenger RNA and tells the ribosome what amino acid that code represents
RNA trascript that forms part of the ribosomes structure.
- special enzymes in the cell made up of protein and RNA
- translates RNA into protein
- organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (sometimes other elements)
- serve as: building blocks for other macromolecules
- storage compounds
- modify function of proteins
- "added water to carbon"
- mono = one
- di= two
- tri= three
- disaccharides, trisaccharides, and polysaccharides
- single sugars linked together
macromolecules made up of amino acids
small compound made by linking an amino group to a carbon and then attaching acid group
a chain of two or more amino acids
Formed by joining one amino acid to the next
- Proteins that make up tendons, give cell shape
- building blocks (ie keratin in hair)
transport proteins of the cells and body
help control activity of the cell
- workers of the cell
- build things by putting compounds together or break things down
- bind to the cytoskeleton and move things along
- sometimes double as motor and carrier proteins
- serve as nutrient stores
- amino acids in reserves
- Ex: ovalbumin in eggs, casein in breast milk
- large, non-polar, organic molecules
- do not dissolve easily in water
chemical term meaning the molecule has an even dist'n of electric charge
- complex organic molecules that are combinations of fatty acids and gylcerol
- energy storage
long chains of carbon and hydrogen that end w/ a carbon with two oxygens attached
- two long carbon chains (16-18) carbons each connected to a glycerol connected to highly charged phospate group
- hydrophilic on one side, hydrophobic on the other side
- forms membranes around cells
- made of interlocking rings of carbon
- function in body as steroids and hormones
- Ex: cholesterol, estrogen, testosterone
Why is microbiology important for life?
- Recycling: nature needs to reuse everything that it makes
- Agrigculture: Nitrogen Fixation - nitrogen is 80% of the air we breathe. Nitrogen fixing bacteria must fix nitrogen into a
- biologically available form
- Food Products: Beer, wine, yogurt, cheese, sour cream, bread, etc.
- Industrial: Pectinases - fruit juices, proteinases- curing leather, plastic production, food additives, dietary supplements,
- amino acids, vitamin, etc
What are Koch's posulates?
- 1. The organism must be present in every case of the disease
- 2. The organism must be isolated from the dieseased host and grow in pure culture
- 3. The disease must reproduce when a pure culture of the organism is innoculated into a healthy suceptible host.
- 4. The organism must be recoverable from the experimentally infected host.
What are the 6 kingdoms of life?
- 1. Animalia
- 2. Plantae
- 3. Fungi
- 4. Protista
- 5. Eubacteria
- 6. Archaebacteria
What are the 2 groups of non-living organisms?
- 1. Viruses, satellite viruses, viroids
- 2. Prions
What are the three domains of life?
What are 2 factors that distinguish the living from the non living?
- 1. They do not have cells
- 2. They do not reproduce
How are organisms named?
- By genus and species and italicized
- Escherichia coli
- Bacillus subtilis
- Homo sapiens Non-living are not italicized
How is DNA transcribed into RNA and translated into protein?
The DNA has to be copied into messenger RNA. The mRNA then goes to the ribosome where it is decoded by the tRNA and the ribosome joins the appropriate amino acids together to make a protein.
What are the six kinds of proteins?
- 1. Structural - make up tendons; give the cell shape; "bricks"
- 2. Regulator - control activity of the cell
- 3. Carrier - trasport proteins
- 4. Enzymes - "workers of the cell"; build things and break them down
- 5. Motor - move things along; bind to cytoskeleton
- 6. Storage - nutrient stores; amino acids in reserve
What is the function of carbohydrates?
- 1. They serve as the building blocks for other macromolecules (DNA, RNA, some amino acids)
- 2. They serve as storage compounds
- 3. They modify the function of proteins