Medical Botany 1

  1. What are functional foods?
    Foods that prevent illness
  2. Who leads the world in consumer sales on functional foods and dietary supplements
    The USA
  3. Asprin is form the extracts of what tree?
    willow trees (bark), Salix spp.
  4. Salicin is
    A chemical compound, salicin, a glycoside, that was first isolated in the 19th century.

    Rev. Edmund Stone used willow for the treatment of fever and chills during the 18th century.
  5. What was salicin initially used for?
    rheumatic fever, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. (control pain, side effects: stomach cramps)
  6. Aspirin was discovered by
    Felix Hoffman in 1898 a chemist in Bayer company. His father suffered from arthritis and stomach problems.
  7. Aspirin is valued for its three classic properties:

    Antipyretic - Fever reducer

    Analgesic – Pain-relieving
  8. Where does the name asprin come from?
    The name aspirin is based on “a” for acetylsalicylic acid and “sprin” for Spirea another plant source.
  9. Taxol (Paclitaxal)
    from Pacific Yew plant (from bark) Taxus brevifolia, a conifer (cone bearing plant- gymnosperm) – need tree to be 100+ yrs old(natural source). Almost went extinct, now making in the lab. Taxol is an anticancer drug.
  10. Warfarin (coumadin)
    from sweet clover Melilotus spp.

    Chemical compound is Coumadin that has anticoagulant activity. – Thins the blood. Cannot eat vit. K

    Warfarin is used to prevent blood clots. Usually prescribed for people who have suffered a heart attack and stroke.
  11. Vincristine
    from Rosy periwinkle Catharanthus roseus – from Madagascar islands.

    Vincristine and Vinblastine are the chemical compounds extracted from the leaves.

    Used for the treatment of childhood leukemia, Hodgkin’s disease, lymphoma, breast cancer, sarcoma and more.
  12. Coatem
    from Chinese Artemisia (Wormwood)

    Used to treat cerebral Malaria.

    Chemical compound is artemisinin
  13. Cinchona
    the 1st malaria drug, gave quinine (chemical compound) – lots of side effects: depression, miscarriages and tetanus.
  14. How do we actually prove that a herbal product is actually effective?
    1. Traditional use of a medicinal plant

    2. Plausible anecdotes

    3. Pharmacological studies

    4. Observational studies

    5. Clinical studies
  15. Preclinical phase
    Phase I trials

    Phase II trials

    Phase III trials
  16. Phase I trials (Preclinical)
    relatively few healthy people (<12) to determine the best dosage form and safe dose.
  17. Phase II trials (preclinical)
    • are done in a large number of patients to test the efficacy and to evaluate
    • safety.
  18. Phase III trials (preclinical)
    • are done on a relatively large number of patients to test the new drug against their
    • current standard treatment.
  19. Quality control
    is the procedure that ensures safety and efficacy of phytomedicines by careful checking:

    The correct identity of the active ingredients – herbs or extracts

    The correct therapeutic concentrations or doses of the active ingredients

    The purity and hygiene of the product (no undesirable contaminants
  20. Purity
    Raw materials or finished product have to be free from adulterants – may dilute or modify reaction.
  21. Standardization
    ensures that all batches contain the same specified concentration of the active chemical compounds.
  22. Safety studies
    Clinical trials are required by the regulatory authorities before a new phytomedicine can be registered.
  23. Pharmacognosy
    is the science that deals with the identification of medicinal plants and drugs.
  24. Shoot system
    above the ground (bark only in mature plants)
  25. Root System
    below the ground
  26. Harpagophytum procumbens (Devils Claw)
    The common name was based on its peculiar fruit shape.

    Dried, sliced toots are used to reduce low back pain and inflammation.

    Widely used in Europe for mild joint pain. Helps with digestion. Taken internally as a tonic.

    Harpagoside - glycoside
  27. Fatty oilis comes from the
  28. essential oil come from
    leaves/flowers (evaporate and give off aroma.)
  29. Whole plant
    herba tota
  30. Aerial parts
  31. Stem
  32. Roots
  33. Wood
  34. Leaves
  35. Flowers
  36. Fruits
  37. Bark
  38. Gum
  39. Resin
  40. Seed
  41. Oil
  42. Essential oil
  43. Bulb
  44. Tuber
  45. Rhizome
  46. Extracts
    crude mixtures of chemical compounds
  47. Mixtures
    2 or more plants
  48. Teas
    infusions, brews from leaves or from powder.
  49. Tincture
    alcoholic (ethanol) solution
  50. Medicinal oils
    fatty oils or waxes mixed with medicinal extracts; external use
  51. Granules
    made by binding powders or powdered extracts
  52. Capsules
    small containers with medicinal products (gelatin container)
  53. Tablets
    compressed powdered material, uncoated
  54. Pills
    semisolid preparations in small proportions
  55. Lozenges
    tablet-like – intended for chewing
  56. Suppositories
    intended for inserting; rare for herbal products
  57. Ointments
    semisolid preparations meant for external application
  58. A plant that is safely consumed as a tea may be totally unsuitable for human use as a tincture. Why?
    The alcohol (ethanol) is used in tincture preparation.

    Ethanol may dissolve toxic substances that would not be present in a tea.
  59. Injection
    Pure chemical extracts are injected directly into the muscles or bloodstream.
  60. Bathing
    Herbs or herbal extracts.
  61. Steaming
    Volatile oils in boiling water.
  62. Smoking
    Burning plant material.
  63. Rectal
    Liquid preparations as enema.
  64. Topical
    Lotions, oils, creams.
  65. Nasal
    Powder, suspensions.
  66. Oral
    Infusions, decoctions, syrups, tablets, pills, capsules.
Card Set
Medical Botany 1
Medical Botany Chapters 1-4