1. connective tissue functions
    • FORM - provide/maintain form in body
    • BIND - connects and binds cells and tissues together
    • HORMONES - hormone reservoir controlling cell growth and differentiation
    • NUTRIENTS/WASTE - medium through which nutrients and wastes are exchanged between cells/blood supply
  2. components of connective tissue - just the terms
    cells, fibers, ground substance
  3. the three types of connective tissue cells and examples of each
    • mesenchymal - fibroblasts, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, adipocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells
    • hematopoietic - mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes (T&B cells), RBCs
    • macrophage like cells - monocytes (blood), macrophage (tissue), multinuclear giant cell (CT), Kupffer cell (liver), microglia (CNS), Langerhans cell (skin), dendritic cell (lymph nodes), osteoclast (bone)
  4. three types of connective tissue fibers
    collagen, elastic, reticular fibers.
  5. Where are collagen fibers located? What gives a collagen fiber it's characteristics?
    Collagen fibers are dispersed in the ECM. The amount of fibers present and the proportions of fibers specialize CT
  6. what are collagen fibers made of?
    polymer of collagen fiber bundles. Each individual fiber in the bundle is made of collagen fibrils, each fibril is a sequence of tropocollagen molecules bound together. Tropocollagen is produced from procollagen
  7. what kind of types of collagen fibers are there and what type of resistance do they provide?
    • more than 25 types, type I, II, III, IV are most common
    • provides resistance to tensile forces
  8. type I collagen
    strongest, largest, most abundant type
  9. type II collagen fibers
    found in articular cartilage and fibrocartilage
  10. type III collagen fibers
    synonymous with reticular fibers, found in skin, artery wall, initially scar tissue
  11. Type IV collagen
    major filament of basement membranes (basal lamina)
  12. reticular fibers
    • type III collagen, small diameter and loosely arranged (flexible for volume changing organs)
    • smooth muscle, endoneurium, hematopoietic organs, papillary layer of dermis
  13. where do elastin polymers aggregate in the elastin fiber?
    in the center, with oxytalan and elaunin on the outside
  14. what is elaunin?
    Elaunin is a mixture of elastin protein and oxytalan fibers (a component of elastin fibers)
  15. what is oxytalan?
    oxytalan is a component of elastin fibers. It is the non-elastic component that is situated on the outside of the fiber
  16. what are glycoproteins? what are their function?
    Proteins that adhere to cell membranes that, along with proteoglycans, make ECM more rigid and structural. Laminin and fibronectin are examples
  17. What are glycosaminoglycans? What are their function?
    they are polysaccharide chains containing amino sugars that are a branching component of proteoglycans. They help to give the ECM more structure/make it more viscous
  18. loose CT: what does it support?
    tissues that are not subjected to much friction, under low pressure
  19. loose CT
    flexible well vascularized, not resistant to tensile forces, many fibroblasts and collagen
  20. dense CT
    • resistance to tensile forces and protection of tissues
    • fewer cells, more fibers
    • minimally flexible
    • arranged into regular (unidirectional) and irregular types (multidirectional)
  21. elastic tissue
    ligaments of spinal column, contains parallel elastic fibers with collagen interspersed
  22. reticular tissue
    • loose CT built by specialized fibroblasts, spongy so as to allow passage of materials/cells
    • bone marrow, spleen, liver, lymph nodes
Card Set
flashcards for the fifth PP (sixth lecture)