1. _____ tissue bind and supports your body parts
  2. Connective tissue sells are widely separeted by a noncellular material that varies in consistency from solid to semifluid to fluid called______
    a matrix
  3. ____ membranse lilne the thoracic and abdominal cavities, as well as secrete a watery fluid keeping membranes lubricated; the peritoneum is an example of this
  4. ____ is the protein responsible for the hardening of epidermal cells, as well as your fingerprints
  5. a negative feedback system prevents change in the same direction
  6. the formed elements of blood _______
    • include red blood cells and white blood cells
    • include platelets
    • make up 45% of blood
  7. ______ is a respiratory pigment that carries O2
  8. _____ is the hormone that speeds up maturing of the cells becoming red blood cells
  9. thrombin acts as an enzyme converting fibrinogen to _______
    fibrin threads
  10. Once blood vessels repair is accomplished, _____ destroys the fibrin network and restores plasma fluidity
  11. the function of an osteoclast is ______
    • to breakdown bone
    • to deposi calcium and phospate in the blood
  12. When bone form between sheets of fibrous connective tissue it is called _______ ossification
  13. A fracture that pierces through the skin is called ______
    compound fracture
  14. The only bone in the body that does not articulate with any other bone
  15. the joints that are immovable, such as the sutures in the skull
    fibrous joints
  16. Muscles contain bundles of muscle fibers called _____
  17. THe contractile units of myofibrils are called _____ which contain myofilaments
  18. Calcium released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum binds with the protein ______
    A Ch
  19. Muscles acquire new ATP for muscles contraction in 3 different ways
    • creatine phosphate breakdown
    • fermentation
    • cellular respiration
  20. Sudden and involunatry muscular contractions most often accompained by pain are called ______
  21. The superior and inferior vena cavas carry O2 poor blood into the ______
    right atrium
  22. Blood enters the aorta by passing through the _____ valve
    aortic semilunar
  23. _____divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) causes a decrease in nodal activity
  24. A clot that has formed and is stationary is called _____
    a thrombus
  25. When a small cranial arterilole bursts, or is blocked by an embolus, you have suffered ______
    a stroke
  26. ____ are composed of specialized cells of the same that perform a common function in the body
  27. _____ covers body surface and lines body cavities
    epithelial tissue
  28. _____binds and supports body parts
    connective tissue
  29. ______ moves the body and its parts
    muscular tissue
  30. ______ receives stimuli and conducts nerve impulses
    nervous tissue
  31. the major types of tissues are ______
    • epithelial tissue
    • connective tissue
    • muscluar tissue
    • nervous tissue
  32. protective function
    functions of epithelial tissue in the body
  33. squamous epithelium
    composed of flattened cells
  34. cubodial epithelium
    composed of cube shaped sells
  35. columnar epithelium
    composed of columnar shaped cells
  36. simple epithelium tissue
    tissue had a simgle layer of cells
  37. stratified epithlium tissue
    tissue has more than one layer of cells
  38. what type of epithelium is 2 layers of cube like cells?
    stratified cubidal
  39. What type of epithelium is one layer of flattened cells?
    simple squamous
  40. this junction hold epithelial cells close together
    tight junction
  41. this junction allows materials to pass from cell to cell
    gap junction
  42. this junction allows cells to stretch and bend
    adhesion junction
  43. binds organd together
    provides support and protection
    filld spaces
    produce blood cells
    stores fat
    functions of connective tissues
  44. cells are seperated by a ______ a noncellular material that varies from solid to semifluid to fluid
    a matrix
  45. types of connective tissues
    • adipose tissue
    • cartilage
    • bone
    • blood
  46. cells enlarge and store fat
    adipose tissue
  47. skeletal muscle that is under voluntary control
  48. smooth muscle is under involuntary control
  49. cardiac muscle is found where?
    only in the walls of the heart
  50. cardiac muscle is under involuntary control
  51. nervous tissue contains nerve cells called _______; is present in the brain and spinal cord; responds to stimuli
  52. a _____ is a specialized cell that has 3 parts
  53. receives signals
  54. contains the cytoplasma and the nucleus
    cell body
  55. conducts nerve impulses
  56. neurogila primary function is to support, protect, and nourish neutrons
  57. human body is divided into two mian catergories
    • ventral cavity
    • dorsal cavity
  58. ventral cavity is made up of two sections
    • thoracic cavity
    • abdominal cavity
  59. thoracic cavity
    contains lungs and heart
  60. abdominal cavity
    contains most of the internal organs
  61. dorsal cavity is made up of two parts
    • cranial cavity
    • vertebral canal
  62. cranial cavity
    contains the brain
  63. vertebral canal
    contains the spinal cord
  64. epidermis does not contain blood vessels
    it is the top part of the skin
  65. epidermis hardening takes place because _____ is produced
  66. specialized cells called _______ produce ______
    • melanocytes
    • melanin
  67. dermis contains blood vessels
    it is the bottom of the skin
  68. the dermis contains sensory receptors
  69. ____ are the protective covering of the fingers
  70. ______ line the thoracic and abdominal cavities and the organs they contain
    serous membranes
  71. _______ secrete a watery fluid keeping membranes lubricated
    serous membranes
  72. ______ line the cavities of freely moveable joints
    synovial membranes
  73. skin plays a major role in homeostasis
  74. ____ covers the body protecting it from physical trauma pathogen invasionand water loss; also regulates temperature
  75. ______ is the relative constancy of the body's internal environment
  76. the internal state of the body is often described as ________
    dynamic equilibrium
  77. a homestatic mechanism in the body has 3 components
    • a sensor
    • a regulatory center
    • an effector
  78. detects change inthe internal environment
    a sensor
  79. activates the effector
    a regulatory center
  80. reverses the change and brings conditions back to normal
    an effector
  81. an example of positive feedback is ______
  82. negative feedback prevents change in the _____ direction
  83. positive feedback brings about an even greater change in the same direction
  84. blood is made up of formed layers which consists of _______
    • red blood cells
    • white blood cells
    • blood platelets
    • makes up 45% of blood
    • is the bottom layer
  85. what are the three main functions of blood?
    • transport
    • defense
    • regulation
  86. ______ is the liquid portion of the blood
    about 92% of ______ is water
    • plasma
    • plasma
  87. ______ is necessary for blood clotting
  88. red blood cells are also known as _______
  89. red blood cells transport O2 because they contain _______
    hemoglobin (respiratory pigment)
  90. Red blood cells are produced in the _____
    red bone marrow
  91. red bone marrow stem cells are capable of becoming cardiac, nerve and blood cells
  92. ______ is the hormone that speeds up maturing of the cells becoming red blood cells
  93. ______ are an insufficient number of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood
  94. white blood cells are also known as ______
  95. _______ have a nucleus
    lack hemoglobin
    white blood cells
  96. _____ function is to fight infection
    their number greatly increases during this time
    white blood cells
  97. ______ result from fragmentation of megakaryocytes
  98. ______ destroys the fibrin network and restores plasma fluidity
  99. damaged tissus cells release tissue ______
  100. fibrinogen------with help of thrombin-------fibrin threads
  101. serveral different cells types partake in bone growth and repair _____
    • osteoblast
    • osteocytes
    • osteoclasts
  102. bone-forming cells; responsible for secreting the matrix
  103. mature bone cells
  104. perform bone resorption
    breakdown bone and deposit clacium and phosphate in blood
  105. formation of bone
  106. bones develop between sheets of fibrous connective tissue
    ex skull bone
    intrmembranous ossification
  107. hyaline cartilage models that appear during fetal development are replaced by bone
    most bones form this way
    endochondral ossification
  108. in adults bone is continually broken down and rebuilt
  109. fracture repair takes place over several months in 4 steps
    • hematoma
    • fibrocartilaginous callus
    • bony callus
    • remodeling
  110. ruptures blood vessels form a ________ between the broken bones (blood clot mass)
    1. hematoma
  111. tissue repair begins and _________ fills space between ends of broken bones
    2. fibrocartilage
  112. osteoblasts convert the fibrocartilage callus to a ______ bony callus, this joins broken bones together
    3. bony callus
  113. osteoblasts build compact bone
    4. remodeling
  114. bone broken clear through
    complete fracture
  115. bone is not seperated into 2 parts
    incomplete fracture
  116. does not pierce the skin
    simple fracture
  117. pierces through the skin
    compound fracture
  118. broken ends are wedged into each other
    impacted fracture
  119. break is ragged due to twisting of bone
    sprial fracture
  120. there are 206 bones int he human body
  121. axial skeleton consists of the skull, hyoid bone, vertebral column, rib cage
  122. the _____ bone is the only bone is the body that does not articullate with another bone
  123. the vertebral column
    • cervical vertebrae- neck region
    • atlas-yes
    • axis-no
    • thoracic vertebrae-ribs attach
    • lumbar vertebrae-small of back
    • sacral vertebrae-pelvis fused
    • coccyx-fused
  124. ____ is the longest and strongest bone in the body
  125. are immovable joints
    fibrous joints
  126. the cells of muscle tissues are called________
    muscles fibers (muscle cell)
  127. skeletal muscles have several functions
    • support the body
    • make bones move
    • help maintain a constant body temperature
    • assists movement in cardiovascular and lymphatic vessels
    • protect internal organs and stabilize joints
  128. muscles contain bundles of muscle fibers called _____
  129. Each fascicle and muscle fiber is covered by connective tissue
  130. muscle fibers-----fascicles----fascia----tendon-----radius
  131. for any particular movement, one muscle does most of the mork and is called the ______
    prime mover
  132. plasma membrane
  133. cytoplasm
  134. ER
    sarcoplasmic reticulum
  135. the sarcolemma forms _____ that penetrate into the cell so that they come in contact with expanded portions of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (that contain Ca ions, essential to contraction)
    T tubules
  136. the contractile portions of muscle fibers
  137. the contractile units of myofibrils are called ______ which contain ______
    • sarcomeres
    • myofilaments
  138. when filaments slide muscle contracts
  139. myosin breaks down ATP; has ______ that pull actin across myosin
    cross bridges
  140. a neurotransmitter; signals muscle contraction
    A Ch
  141. A Ch binds to receptors in the sarcolemma
  142. threads wind around an actin filament
  143. occurs at intervals along the threads
  144. contraction continues until nerve impulses cease and Ca ions are returned to their storage sacs
  145. Muscle acquire new ATP in 3 different ways
    • creatine phosphate breakdown
    • fermentation
    • cellular respiration
  146. Creatine phospate is used to turn ADP into ATP
  147. sudden and involuntary muscular contractions most often accompanied by pain
  148. inflammation of a tendon
  149. ibuprofen and naproxen
    cortisone injections
    treatments for arthritis, tendinitis, and bursitis
  150. ______ carry blood AWAY from the heart to the capillaries
  151. _____ permit exchange of materials with the tissues
  152. _____ are impoertant because exchange takes place across their thin walls
  153. O2 and nutrients diffuse out of a capillary into the tissue fluid that surrounds cells
  154. wastes diffuse into the capillary
  155. relative constancy of tissue fluid is absolutely dependet on capillary exchange
  156. _____ RETURNS blood from the capillaries to the heart
  157. veins often have ______
  158. _____ prevent backflow of blood when closed
  159. the heart 4 chambers
    • right and left atrium
    • right and left ventricle
  160. when looking at the heart, everything is a mirror image
    • true
    • lefts and rights are switched
  161. between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk
    pulmonary semilunar
  162. between the left ventricle and aorta
    aortic semilunar
  163. passage of blood through the heart
    • O2 poor blood from the body
    • enters the superior and inferior vena cavas
    • then enters the right atrium
    • through the tricuspid valve
    • into the right ventricle
    • then through the pulmonary trunk
    • into the pulmonary arteries
    • goes to the lungs
    • O2 rich blood from the lungs
    • enters the pulmonary veins
    • then enters the left atrium
    • through the bicuspid valve
    • into the left ventricle
    • through the aoric semilunar valve
    • into the aorta
    • goes to the body
  164. O2 poor blood never mixes with O2 rich blood
  165. right = poor blood
    left = rich blood
  166. the left side of the heart is larger than the right side of the heart
  167. the heart is a double pump
  168. the heart beats last about 0.85 seconds
  169. unique type of cardiac muscle in the heart
    nodal tissue
  170. upper wall of the right atrium
    SA node
  171. ______ initiates the heartbeat; automatically sends out an excitation impluse every 0.85 seconds
    pacemaker of the heart
    SA node
  172. when impulses reach the ______ there is a slight delay that allows the atria to finish contracting before the ventricles begin to contract
    AV node
  173. ANS has two subdivisions
    • parasympathetic
    • sympathetic
  174. resting state functions
    decreases nodal activity
  175. increased activity/ stress
    increases nodal activity
  176. ______ hormones stimulate the heart
    adriniline (epinephrine)
  177. circulates O2 poor blood through the lungs
    pulmonary circuit
  178. Not all arteries carry O2 rich blood
  179. circulates O2 rich blood through the body
    systemic circuit
  180. the _______ serve the heart muscle itself
    coronary arteries
  181. stationary clot is called _____
  182. clot that dislodges and moves is called ______
  183. clot carried in blood but now stationary
    must be treated to prevent complications
  184. _______ all three are associated with hypertension adn atherosclerosis
    • Stroke
    • Heart Attack
    • Aneurysm
  185. ______ results when a small cranial arteriole burst or is blocked by an embolus
  186. ______ results when a portion of the heart muscle dies due to lack of O2
    Heart Attack
  187. ______ results from balooning of a blood vessel
  188. this drug converts plasminogen into plasmin
    ______ is the body's own way of dissolving clots as well
    t- PA
  189. ______ is being used to allow patients to grow their own blood vessels instead of surgery to fix the problem
    Gene therapy
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