1. Decomposers
    derive energy form dead stuff, waste products
  2. Scavengers
    eat tissue from dead organisms
  3. Detritivores
    decomposers that digest non-living matter
  4. Saprotroph
    lives on or in non-living organic matter, secreting digestive enzymes into it and absorbing the products of digestion
  5. Trophic levels
    • steps in transfer of energy
    • an organism can exist on different trophic levels at once
  6. 1st trophic level
    ALWAYS WILL BE Producers
  7. 2nd trophic level
    Consumers, carnivores, omnivores
  8. 3rd trophic level
    Carnivores, omnivores, consumers
  9. Producers
    photosynthetic plants, algae, bacteria
  10. Primary consumer
  11. Secondary consumer
  12. Tertiary consumer
    Stronger carnivores
  13. Food chains
    • simple food chains
    • direction of arrow indicates direction of energy flow
  14. Food webs
    complex food chains that are highly interconnected between organisms and trophic levels
  15. Cell
    • 1st level of biological levels of organisation
    • smallest living part
  16. Tissue
    • 2nd lvl of bio. lvls
    • groups of cells with similar function
  17. Organ
    • 3rd lvl of bio. lvls
    • groups of tissues with similar function
  18. Organ system
    • 4th lvl of bio. lvls
    • gtoups of organs with similar functions
  19. Organism
    • 5th lvl of bio. lvls
    • groups of organ systems that make up organism
  20. Population
    • 6th lvl of bio. lvls
    • group of organisms of same species, living in same area, at the same time
  21. Community
    • 7th lvl of bio. lvls
    • groups of different species living in same area
  22. Ecosystem
    • 8th lvl of bio. lvls
    • a community and its physical and chemical environment
  23. Biome
    • 9th lvl of bio. lvls
    • large area and its organisms
  24. Biosphere
    • 10th lvl of bio. lvls
    • narrow zone around Earth with life
  25. Biodiversity definition
    number of species in an ecosystem
  26. indicator species
    species that is most sensitive to change in an ecosystem
  27. Unbalanced equilibrium in an ecosystem
    • a change in any organism level in an ecosystem
    • includes indicator species, at risk species, endangered species, extirpated, threatened, special concern
  28. Endangered species
    species that is close to extinction in all parts of a country or in a large location
  29. Extirpated species
    species that no longer exists in one part of a country but can be found in others
  30. Threatened species
    likely to become endangered if threatening factors are not reversed
  31. Special concern
    species at risk due to low or declining numbers at the fringe of its range or in a restricted area
  32. Abiotic factors
    factors that are non-living, ex. sun, weather, etc.
  33. Autotroph
    • producers
    • organisms that get energy from sunlight or nonorganic energy sources
    • convert inorganic compounds to organic forms
    • basic trophic level in an ecosystem, supports all other organisms
  34. Chemoautotrophs
    • require only carbon dioxide, water, and an energy source to make nutrients
    • this energy source is hydrothermal vents near the edges of Earth's crustal plates
    • usually found in caves or deep oceans
  35. Why biodiversity is important
    if one or a few organisms die, then the trophic levels become messed up, and the ecosystem eventually dies off
  36. First law of thermodynamics
    energy cannot be created or destroyed, only changed from one form to another
  37. Second law of thermodynamics
    with each successive energy transfer, less energy is available to do work. energy lost due to heat
  38. Energy pyramid
  39. Biomass pyramid
  40. Numbers pyramid
  41. Human impact
    • hunting/fishing gets rid of food sources 
    • messes up the ecosystem
    • pesticides
    • herbicides
    • insecticides
    • anything that humans do to damage the population
    • damaging the environment - pollution
  42. Monoculture
    growing one crop
  43. Positives to monoculture
    cheap, grows fast, resistant to weather, profitable
  44. Negatives to monoculture
    • if the one species dies -  livelihood lost, food source is lost
    • if the one species' population decreases - people can die to hunger due to direct lack of food, lack of money that would be made from profit of the one species
  45. Biogeochemical structures
    chemicals being recycled on Earth
  46. Hydrogen bonds in water
    make water really special
  47. Acid rain
    • bad
    • formed from NOx and SO2 combining
    • kills plants etc
    • alkaline soils counteract acid rain
  48. Alkaline
    • basic
    • ph of 8-14
  49. Where is inorganic carbon stored
    • atmosphere, crust, oceans
    • oceans store the most CO2
  50. CO2 can combine with H2O to become
    CaCO3  (calcium carbonate)
  51. shellfish - shell material
  52. Carbon cycle
    photosynthesis - then food chain - then cellular respiration
  53. Where is organic carbon stored
    living beings
  54. Bogs
    decompose peat
  55. Peat
    • warm
    • plant matter
    • HIGHLY acidic
  56. coal is squished?
  57. oil is squished?
  58. Albedo
    reflectiveness of sunlight of a material


    0 = not reflective, 1 = completely reflective

    0.0.8 = 8% reflective
  59. Stromatolites
    historical atmospheric concentration evidence
  60. Nitrogen fixation
    1st step of nitrogen cycle
  61. Nitrification
    2nd step of nitrogen cycle
  62. Ammonification
    3rd step of nitrogen cycle
  63. Denitrification
    4th step of nitrogen cycle
  64. Nitrate
  65. NO3
  66. Nitrogen fixation
    • N2 converted to NO3
    • 90% of nitrogen fixation is performed by nitrogen-fixing bacteria within soil

    10% of nitrogen fixation caused by lightning
  67. Nitrification
    • NH4 ions converted into NO3
    • NH4 (ammonium) converted by nitrifying bacteria, within soil, into NO2 (nitrite) and THEN into NO3 (nitrate)
    • ^for plants that require N in form of NO3
    • some plants CAN use NH4 BUT it is still toxic
    • nitrification is literally "take useless form of N and turn into nitrate"
    • therefore nitrification does not have to be NH4, can be any useless form of nitrogen EXCEPT for atmospheric version (N2) which is nitrogen fixation
  68. Ammonification
    • done by decomposers
    • convert nitrogen remains into ammonia (NO3)
    • can be "ammonium -> ammonia -> NO3"
    • ammonium does NOT DIRECTLY convert into NO3
    • animal wastes also contain N compounds that are then converted into NH3
  69. Denitrification
    • not all NO3/NO2/NH3 in soil is absorbed by plants
    • some is used by denitrifying bacteria
  70. Denitrifying bacteria
    • convert NO3/NO2/NH3 into N2
    • do NOT require oxygen, in fact, oxygen is lethal to them
  71. Holes in dirt/soil/grass purpose
    to kill denitrifying bacteria
  72. Phosphorus cycle
    • phosphorus is contained in rocks in form of PO4
    • soil, plants, decomposers, soil etc - FAST TRACK
    • phosphorus washed into ocean into shellfish into sand into rocks, rained on, phosphorus released - SLOW TRACK
  73. Carbon cycle vs phosphorus cycle
    • phosphorus cycle happens EXACT SAME WAY in carbon cycle
    • HOWEVER, the carbon cycle also includes the atmosphere while phosphorus cycle is SOLELY ON EARTH
  74. Eutrophication and algal blooms
    • runoffs of N, P
    • algae blooms
    • decomposers burn through oxygen as they decompose the algae
    • less oxygen for everything else
    • everything else dies
  75. Eutrophication
    oxygen starvation/deficiency
  76. ecotone
    transition area between ecosystems
  77. Niche
    role/habitat for a specific species
  78. Biome determined by
    • sunlight
    • temperature
    • precipitation
  79. Boreal forest
    • aka taiga
    • bunch of pine trees
    • pine trees have a lot of resin
    • acidic soil
  80. Littoral zone
    • surface layer of aquatic biome
    • contains producers
  81. Linnetic zone
    • less light than littoral
    • algae
  82. Profundal zone
    • deepest layer of ocean
    • snails
    • decomposers
  83. Epilineum
    warmest layer
  84. thermocline
    medium layer
  85. hypolimion
    coldest layer
  86. Factors affecting ecosystem
    • soil
    • available water
    • temperature
    • sunlight
  87. Litter
    dead leaves etc
  88. Topsoil
    • fertile
    • good for growing stuff
  89. Subsoil
    less nutrients than topsoil
  90. bedrock
    layer beneath soil
  91. Abiotic factors of aquatic systems
    • Chemical environment
    • Temperature/light
    • water pressure
  92. Spring turnover
    O2 dissolved into water
  93. Fall turnover
    o2 dissolved into water
  94. Wetlands
    a lot of biodiversity
  95. Law of minimum
    you are the weakest link... goodbye
  96. Law of tolerance
    how much can you take
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