N165: Quiz 4; Unit 5c

  1. Cross-modal perception
    occurs where perception involves interactions between two or more different sensory modalities
  2. Synesthesia
    • A phenomenon where stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway
    • a type of cross-modal perception.
    • May be associated with improved memory and faster reaction times on certain tasks (e.g., visual search task).
  3. Key Aspects of Synesthesia
    consistency, automaticity, multi-sense (multi-synthetic)
  4. Grapheme --> color
    written letters/numbers evoke colors
  5. Sound --> color
    sounds evoke colors; also called chromesthesia
  6. Lexical --> gustatory
    spoken or written words evoke tastes (and often also temperature, textures of food)
  7. Number-form & spatial-sequence
    • numbers and sequences evoke shapes and forms
    • these types may overlap significantly
  8. Ordinal-linguistic personification
    ordered sequences like numbers and letters are associated with personalities and/or genders
  9. Misophonia
    • possible synesthesia vs. neurological disorder
    • sounds evoke strong negative emotions
    • also associated with anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourrette’s syndrome, and maybe autism
  10. Synesthesia Causes
    • Developmental: from differences in white matter connections, such as a decrease in synaptic pruning
    • Acquired: from sensory, drugs, or trauma
  11. Projector synesthetes
    • these people experience their synesthetic percepts as similar in quality to real-world perceptions.
    • For example, synesthetic colors might appear as projected onto external objects and be difficult to dissociate from real-world colors.
    • These synesthetes might not be able to tell whether letter are in black/white or color.
    • This type likely arises from changes earlier in the sensory processing pathways (like apperceptive agnosia) and is rarer.
  12. Associator synesthetes
    • these people experience their synesthetic sensations within their internal mental space.
    • For example, they would see letters as appearing black/white, but would automatically associate the letters with colors in their mind/memory.
    • This type is more common, and may arise from higher-order sensory regions (like associative agnosia), linking basic sensory perception with an associated memory, emotion, or sensory mental imagery.
  13. Visual search task
    • In the visual search task, it takes longer to find the number 2 hidden among 5’s when they are all the same color.
    • Reaction time is much faster when there is a color difference.
    • Grapheme-color synesthetes have a reaction time like there is a clear color difference when the numbers used match their synesthetic perceptions, even when the written text is all in black.
    • This speeded-up response is driven by the pop-out effect of the colored number.
Card Set
N165: Quiz 4; Unit 5c