Phillosphies 1

  1. theory of truth – pragmatism? Explain.
    sees beliefs as true if they help us reach the experiences we desire.
  2. representation metaphor
    • René Descartes, “I think, therefore I am”—expresses his skepticism toward our worldly senses and their tendency toward representation rather than conviction
    • we can't jump outside our own experience to comprehend the external world's objects and interrelations in some experience-independent way.
  3. Charles Sanders Peirce
    the founder of American pragmatism, our differing belief systems would converge to a single set of optimal beliefs that would best enable each of us to achieve our differing goals. Regarding pragmatism.
  4. The problem with pragmatism is?
    The problem with this is that our goals vary, so conflicting beliefs may be useful for people with different goals.
  5. Why are differing view points an advantage?
    Finally, it's better if we don't all have the same beliefs. For a tough problem, we'll want to choose from a range of proposed solutions. Heterodox views are to be tolerated, even if not adopted.
  6. informal fallacy is the appeal to ignorance (Latin, argumentum ad ignorantiam ). In this argument an example is....
    This hasn't been proved to be true, therefore it's false This hasn't been proved to be false, therefore it's true.
  7. the argument from personal incredulity .
    • 1. I can't imagine how this thing could be true
    • 2. But if this thing is true then I should be able to imagine how it's true
    • 3. Therefore this thing is not true
  8. Absence of evidence isn't logically equivalent to evidence of absence, but to believe it is can be considered to be an application of the first form of the fallacy.
    The second form of the fallacy is a weaker type of reasoning than the first because proving a negative is generally more difficult than proving a positive.
  9. problem, for this accepted standard must itself be examined for its validity; and the standard used to examine that standard also examined, and so on, and so on.
    ‘dilemma of the criterion’,
  10. This can provide another reasonable use of the second form of the argument to ignorance: ‘It hasn't been proved to be false, therefore it's (provisionally) true’
    Science
  11. the beginning of wisdom is admitting one's ignorance. Who said this?
    Socrates
  12. why and how people are resistant to evidence or reasoning opposed to their own worldview.
    cognitive biases.
  13. Absence of evidence isn't logically equivalent to evidence of...,
    Absence
  14. This hasn't been proved to be true, therefore it's false This hasn't been proved to be false, therefore it's true.   What type of argument is this?
    informal fallacy is the appeal to ignorance (Latin, argumentum ad ignorantiam
  15. the school of Pyrrhonian scepticism to which he belonged held that it is necessary to adopt a position of radical doubt with regards to the possibility of finding rational justifications.
    Sextus Empiricus
  16. Ludwig Wittgenstein alludes to the latter option when he states in On Certainty (1969):
    “The questions that we raise and our doubts depend on the fact that some propositions are exempt from doubt, are as it were like hinges on which those turn…We just can't investigate everything, and for that reason we are forced to rest content with assumption. If I want the door to turn, the hinges must stay put.”
  17. In response to this so-called ‘dilemma of the criterion’, Sextus Empiricus and the school of Pyrrhonian scepticism to which he belonged held that it is necessary to adopt a position of?
    radical doubt with regards to the possibility of finding rational justifications.
  18. in Hegel's writing. Hegel tries to show that the self-critical structure of human consciousness can help one avoid?
    Circularity of justification
    avoid circularity through building up a reasoned account of one's beliefs. The dilema of the criterion.
  19. foundationalist says a given belief is justified if it
    the validity of a belief may be calculated by the extent to which it is grounded in our foundational beliefs.
    if it has the right relation to certain basic or foundational beliefs.
  20. theories of justification
    coherentism and foundationalism .
  21. coherentist
    The justification for a belief lies in that belief's coherence with other beliefs. If a particular belief is logically consistent with other, well-established beliefs, then this gives us justification in accepting it.
  22. for Hegel, the nature of human consciousness does not exclude the possibility of accessing reality as it is . This is because for Hegel....
    the self, the perception of reality, and reality itself, are interdependent, as it is all the working of Spirit or the Idea through history.
  23. Criterion delima
    Infinite regression or circularity reference.
Author
johnbowens
ID
355463
Card Set
Phillosphies 1
Description
Updated