1. linking verbs?
    • She is a nurse.
    • The moon is in outer space.
    • have become weary of your methodical approach to waltzing.
    • The Dalai Lama seems like a nice guy.
  2. Stative verbs?
    Stative verbs do NOT refer to a physical action; they express a state or condition (things which are permanent; things which don't have a beginning or end). Some examples of stative verbs are: like, love, believe, know, understand, have (when it means to own), prefer, hate.
  3. Modal verbs
    can could may might will would must shall should ought to

    Modals are different from normal verbs:

    • 1: They don't use an 's' for the third person singular.
    • 2: They make questions by inversion ('she can go' becomes 'can she go?').
    • 3: They are followed directly by the infinitive of another verb (without 'to').
    • Probability:

    First, they can be used when we want to say how sure we are that something happened / is happening / will happen. We often call these 'modals of deduction' or 'speculation' or 'certainty' or 'probability'.

    • For example:
    • It's snowing, so it must be very cold outside.
    • I don't know where John is. He could have missed the train.
    • This bill can't be right. £200 for two cups of coffee!
  4. Principal verb?
    A verb that has a meaning of its own and does not accompany another verb
  5. Cognitive development in L1 should be continued through elementary years in order to achieve cognitive and academic success in L2 True or false?
  6. Cognitive development in L1 must be developed to at least the comparable level of native English-speaking peers in order to achieve cognitive and academic success in L2. True or False?
  7. Students who receive formal schooling in L1 do worse at acquiring L2 than students with no schooling in L1. True or False?
  8. What is dysnomia?
    Dysnomia is a learning disability that is marked by difficulty in recalling words, names, numbers, etc. from memory. The real problem stems from the fact that the words that they can not remember are essential, as they are needed for oral or written expressive language.
  9. Code Switching?
    the practice of alternating between two or more languages or varieties of language in conversation.
  10. Biliteracy?
    A person who is bilingual can fluently speak two languages. A person who is biliterate can read and write proficiently in two languages. A person who is biliterate is also considered bilingual, but a person who is bilingual is not necessarily biliterate.
  11. Relative pronoun
    A relative pronoun is one that introduces an adjective clause (also called a relative clause). The relative pronouns are 'that,' 'which,' 'who,' 'whom,' and 'whose.
  12. Possessive Pronoun
    a pronoun indicating possession, for example, mine, yours, hers, theirs.
  13. Reflexive pronouns?
    Reflexive pronouns are words ending in -self or -selves that are used when the subject and the object of a sentence are the same (e.g., I believe in myself). They can act as either objects or indirect objects. The nine English reflexive pronouns are myself, yourself, himself, herself, oneself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves.
  14. indefinite pronoun
    a pronoun that does not refer to any person, amount, or thing in particular, e.g. anything, something, anyone, everyone.
  15. digraph?
    a combination of two letters representing one sound, as in ph and ey.
  16. Consonant blend?
    A consonant blend is when two or more consonants are blended together, but each sound may be heard in the blend. The most common beginning consonant blends include: bl, br, cl, cr, dr, fr, tr, fl, gl, gr, pl, pr, sl, sm, sp and st. Blends can also occur at the end of words as in the word “last”.
  17. beginning level ELLs understand that vocabulary consists of concrete words that can be represented by pictures. True or False?
  18. why would a venn diagram help ELLs understand expository texts?
    can help students understand differences and similarities between two topics.
  19. why would a time line help ELLs understand expository texts?
    Time lines can help students understand sequence of events in a story
  20. why would a thinking map help ELLs understand expository texts?
    can help students understand connection between topics and details
  21. why would a venn diagram help ELLs understand expository texts?
    can help students understand vocabulary used in a reading section
  22. why would a story map not help ELLs understand expository texts?
    story maps used in fictional texts not expository
  23. Idioms?
    • Here are 10 of the most common idioms that are easy to use in daily conversation:
    • “Hit the hay.”
    • “Sorry, guys, I have to hit the hay now!” ...
    • “Up in the air” ...
    • “Stabbed in the back” ...
    • “Takes two to tango” ...
    • “Kill two birds with one stone.” ...
    • “Piece of cake” ...
    • “Costs an arm and a leg” ...
    • “Break a leg”
  24. true or false drawing pictures of idiomatic language especially for beginning readers, significantly increases understanding of the true meaning of the language. Ex. break a leg, draw a picture of breaking a leg.
  25. anectdotal log
    notes about students recorded throughout the day
  26. formal assessment requires?
    • specific time for administration
    • expectations for what is being assessed
  27. performance based assessments require
    students to perform a certain task
  28. portfolio
    collection of a variety of work
  29. Students receiving instruction exclusively in English and not having the distractions of a mainstream classroom environment is called what type of program?
  30. Students are taught in both English and their native language so that they eventually become fluent in both.
    Dual language
  31. Students who recently arrived in the United States are given specific interventions to help their transition.
    Newcomer centers
  32. A school district is establishing an ESL program for the first time and must do so in compliance with established
    criteria. The district first puts into place a mechanism that will determine the program’s effectiveness in achieving its
    instructional goals for ELLs. The evaluation ensures that the program will primarily fulfill requirements established by
    Castañeda v. Pickard.
  33. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483, was a landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in which the Court ruled that U.S. state laws establishing racial segregation in public schools are unconstitutional, even if the segregated schools are otherwise equal in quality
  34. Castañeda v. Pickard
    • The bilingual education program must be “based on sound educational theory.”
    • The program must be “implemented effectively with resources for personnel, instructional materials, and space.”
    • After a trial period, the program must be proven effective in overcoming language barriers/handicaps.
  35. Lau v. Nichols
    was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court unanimously decided that the lack of supplemental language instruction in public school for students with limited English proficiency violated the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The court held that since non-English speakers were denied a meaningful education, the disparate impact caused by the school policy violated Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the school district was demanded to provide students with "appropriate relief".[1]
  36. Plyler v. Doe
    Plyler v. Doe, 457 U.S. 202 (1982), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States struck down both a state statute denying funding for education to undocumented immigrant children in the United States and a municipal school district's attempt to charge an annual $1,000 tuition fee for each student to compensate for lost state funding
  37. No Child Left Behind
    • No Child Left Behind established the requirement that states, school districts,
    • and schools must ensure that all students are proficient in grade-level math and reading
  38. affective filter
    The affective filter is a metaphor that describes a learner's attitudes that affect the relative success of second language acquisition. Negative feelings such as lack of motivation, lack of self-confidence and learning anxiety act as filters that hinder and obstruct language learning.
  39. Cognitive development
    Cognitive development refers to how a person perceives, thinks, and gains understanding of his or her world through the interaction of genetic and learned factors. Among the areas of cognitive development are information processing, intelligence , reasoning, language development , and memory.
  40. Cultural relativism
    Cultural relativism is the ability to understand a culture on its own terms and not to make judgments using the standards of one's own culture. The goal of this is promote understanding of cultural practices that are not typically part of one's own culture.
  41. ethnocentrism
    An example of ethnocentrism in culture is the Asian cultures across all the countries of Asia. Throughout Asia, the way of eating is to use chopsticks with every meal. These people may find it unnecessary to find that people in other societies, such as the American society, eat using forks, spoons, knives, etc.
  42. phonology
    An example of phonology is the study of different sounds and the way they come together to form speech and words - such as the comparison of the sounds of the two "p" sounds in "pop-up." Being able to hear where in a word a certain consonant is found (ie.. beginning, middle, end)
  43. Morphology
    Morphology is the study of words and their parts. Morphemes, like prefixes, suffixes and base words, are defined as the smallest meaningful units of meaning. Morphemes are important for phonics in both reading and spelling, as well as in vocabulary and comprehension.
  44. Semantics
    Semantics is the study of meaning in language. It can be applied to entire texts or to single words. For example, "destination" and "last stop" technically mean the same thing, but students of semantics analyze their subtle shades of meaning.
  45. Syntax
    Syntax is the arrangement of words to form a sentence; diction refers to word choice. For example, will you say "the blue sapphire" or "the cerulean sparkler"
  46. minimal pair
    A minimal pair or close pair consists of two words with sounds that are very similar but have different meanings. For example, rot and lot may sound similar, especially to some non-native English speakers.Image Upload 1
  47. phonemic distinctions
    According to your defintion, Hroo, there is a phonemic difference between the vowels in these pairs of words:

    • vein/vain
    • thought/caught
    • sun/son
    • wood/would
    • brown/noun
  48. orthography
    orthography \or-THAH-gruh-fee\ noun. 1 a : the art of writing words with the proper letters according to standard usage. b : the representation of the sounds of a language by written or printed symbols. 2 : a part of language study that deals with letters and spelling.
  49. Figurative language
    Image Upload 2
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