Joints/Veterbral Column/Superficial Back Muscles

  1. Types of Joints
    • Fibrous
    • Cartilaginous
    • Synovial
  2. Joint Cavity
    Contains synovial fluid produced by the synovial membrane, which lubricates the joint and has the consistency of egg white
  3. Joint (articular) Capsule
    • Surrounds the joint cavity
    • "thick, tough, yet pliable membrane
  4. Hyaline Cartilage
    Covers the ends of the bones
  5. Fibrous joints
    • Suture
    • Syndesmosis
  6. Suture Joints
    • Bones of the skull
    • Separated by fibrous tissue and are called fontanelles at birth

    Complete fusion (synostosis) begins in the early 20's and continues until old age
  7. Syndesmosis Jointss
    • Opposed bones joined by intervening fibrous tissue
    • I.e. parallel attachment of the radius and ulna
  8. Cartilagineous joints
    • Synchondrosis
    • Symphysis
  9. Synchondrosis joints
    • Temporary and eventually converted to bone
    • I.e epipyseal plate
  10. Symphysis Joint
    • Result from elastic and fibrous tissue forming a compressible disk
    • Intervertebral disks are a good example
  11. Synovial Joints
    • Plane Joints
    • Hinge joints
    • Pivot
    • Condyloid
    • Saddle
    • Ball and socket
  12. Plane joints
    • These joints produce a gliding movement 
    • i.e intercarpal, carpometacarpal joints
  13. Hinge joints
    • Joints allow movement in one directional plane so these are uniaxial
    • I.e. humeroulnar joint or elbow
  14. Pivot Joint
    • Joint allows rotation around a longitudinal axis
    • I.e. the joint formed by the 1st and 2nd cervical vertebrae
  15. Condyloid
    • These joints allow their components to move in 2 directions at right angles to each other (multiaxial
    • I.e. metacarpophalangeal joints
  16. Saddle Joint
    • Joint where the curvature of the articulating surfaces are at right angles
    • 1st metacarpal joint (trapeziometacarpal) of the thumb allows for the thumb to be extended (moved laterally from the palm), flexed, and adducted/abducted
    • Image Upload 1
  17. Ball and socket joint
    • Have the greatest freedom of movement
    • Consists of a "ball" fitted snugly into a socket
    • i.e. hip joint and glenohumeral joint
  18. Veterbral Column
    • S-shaped structure
    • Approx 72-75 cm
  19. Line of Gravity
    • Normally through the bodies of the upper and lower vertebrae with center of gravity being just anterior to sacral promontory
    • Image Upload 2
  20. Formation of Primary Curvatures
    • Thoracic: present at birth and accommodates the thoracic viscera
    • Sacral: accommodates the pelvic viscera
  21. Formation of Secondary Curvatures
    • Cervical: forms at about 2-3 months post gestation
    • Lumbar: forms at about 8-10 months post gestation
  22. Curvature Directions
    • Cervical: anteriorly convex
    • Thoracic: anteriorly concave
    • Lumbar: anteriorly convex
    • Sacral: anteriorly concave
    • Image Upload 3
  23. Vertebral column breakdown
    33 vertebrae total

    • 7 cervical vertebrae (flexible)
    • 12 thoracic vertebrae (flexible)
    • 5 lumbar vertebrae (flexible)
    • 5 sacral vertebrae (fused into a sacrum)
    • 4 coccygeal vertebrae (fused into a coccyx)
  24. Cervical vertebrae have
    • Smallest size
    • Neural arch and transverse foramen
    • Flexibility
    • Forked spinous process (except for C1 (atlas) and C7)
  25. Most distinctive characteristic of the 7th cervical vertebra
    • Existence of a long and prominent spinous process (vertebra prominens)
    • Occasionally gives passage to vertebral artery, more likely vertebral vein on both sides
    • Image Upload 4
  26. Vertebra Prominens
    Process is thick, nearly horizontal in direction, not bifurcated
  27. Cervical rib
    Anterior root of transverse process attains a large size and exists as a separate bone
  28. Thoracic vertebrae
    • Heart-shaped bodies 
    • Larger than cervical vertebrae
    • Long, inferiorly pointed spinous process
    • Costal facets- demifacets
    • Image Upload 5
  29. Lumbar Vertebrae
    • Largest bodies to support more weight
    • Thick, short processes
    • Vertebral canal which narrows inferiorly
    • Mammillary processes and accessory processes
    • Image Upload 6
  30. Sacrum
    • Triangular shape for stability
    • Anterior/posterior sacral foramina
    • "buffer" function to absorb forces of gravity
    • Sacral hiatus with sacral cornu (horns) on either side, and sacral canal
    • Image Upload 7
  31. Coccyx
    • Pelvic diaphragm attachment
    • Posterior sacrcoccygeal ligament- crosses sacral hiatus
    • Lateral sacrococcygeal ligaments, which attach the transverse process of the coccyx to the sacrum
    • Usually 4 fused segments, with the upper segment having a cornu (horn and a transverse process)
    • Image Upload 8
  32. Joints found in vertebral column
    • Cartilaginous joints
    • Synovial joints (gliding)
    • Atlanto-axial joint (pivot)
    • Atlanto-occipital joint (condyloid)
  33. Atlanto-Axial joint
    • Connects C1 (atlas) with C2 (axis)
    • Forms a pivot joint which allows the skull to rotate left and left
  34. Atlanto-occipital joint
    Connects C1 (atlas) with occipital bone of skull
  35. Vertebral bodies joined by
    • Intervertebral discs
    • Anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL)
    • Posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL)
  36. Intervertebral discs
    • Consists of nucleus pulposus (watery gelatinous center) and annulus fibrosus (thick layer of fibrocartilage)
    • Image Upload 9
  37. Anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL)
    • Runs longitudinally over the anterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies
    • Tapers bottom to up and runs outside of the vertebral bodfy
  38. Posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL)
    • Runs longitudinally over the posterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies and is contained within the vertebral canal
    • Tapers Top to bottom
    • Posterior to spinal cord
  39. What does the size tapering of the ALL and PLL help explain?
    Why herniations of the nucleus pulposus occur anteriorly in the cervical spine and posteriorly in the lumbar spine
  40. Supraspinous ligament
    Covers the tips of the spinous processes
  41. Ligmentum nuchae
    • Continuation of the supraspinous ligament into the cervical region
    • Provides stabilization of the cervical vertebrae and attachment of cervical muscles
  42. Interspinous ligaments
    segmental ligaments found between spinous processes
  43. Intertransverse ligaments
    Segmental ligaments found between transverse processes
  44. Ligamentum flava
    Elastic ligaments found segmentally between the vertebral laminae
  45. Atlas
    • Posterior tubercle instead of body or spinous process
    • Transverse ligament attaches to either side of the posterior surface of the anterior portion of the neural arch-- ligament "snuggles" the odontoid process or dens
    • Image Upload 10
  46. Kyphosis
    • Hunch back
    • Image Upload 11
  47. Lordosis
    Image Upload 12
  48. Scoliosis
    Image Upload 13
  49. Trapezius innervation
    • Accessory Nerve 
    • CN XI
  50. Latissimus dorsi innervation
    Dorsal Scapular nerve
  51. Levator scapulae innervation
    Dorsal scapular nerve
  52. Serratus posterior superior and serratus posterior inferior
    • 2 muscles are small and very thin
    • Generally function as accessory muscles of respiration
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Joints/Veterbral Column/Superficial Back Muscles