Lecture 1-4 Self Study

  1. Anatomical Position
    Standing upright, head facing front, arms at side with palms forward
  2. Median (Midsagittal)
    Divides the body into right/left halves
  3. Frontal (Coronal)
    Divides the body into anterior/posterior portions
  4. Transverse (Horizontal)
    Divides the body into upper/lower portions
  5. Superior
    • Cephalad
    • Towards the head

    Transverse plane splits this from inferior
  6. Inferior
    • Caudad
    • Towards the feet

    Transverse plane splits this from superior
  7. Anterior
    • Ventral
    • Near the front of the body

    Coronal plane splits body from posterior
  8. Posterior
    • Dorsal
    • Near the back of the body

    Coronal plane splits body from anterior
  9. Medial
    Towards the midline of the body
  10. Lateral
    Further from the midline of the body
  11. Superficial
    Towards the surface
  12. Deep
    Further from the surface of the skin
  13. Proximal
    Toward the point of connection
  14. Distal
    Further from the point of connection
  15. Supine
    Laying facing up
  16. Prone
    Lying facing down
  17. Extension
    Increases the angle at the joint
  18. Flexion
    Decreases the angle at the joint
  19. Abduction
    • Moves away from the body
    • On the hands, it is other fingers moving away from the middle finger
  20. Adduction
    • Moves toward the body
    • Fingers moves towards the middle finger
  21. Circumduction
    Combination of flexion, extension, abduction, adduction
  22. Rotation
    Head of a bone spins within the socket of another bone
  23. Types of Rotation
    • Medial (internal) or lateral (external)
    • Pronation or supination
  24. Elevation
    Movement in superior direction i.e. shoulder shrug up
  25. Depression
    Movement in inferior direction i.e. lower jaw
  26. Tissue Groups
    • Skin
    • Fascia
    • Muscle
    • Bone
    • Fat
  27. Skin
    Covers the body externally and has three layers (epidermis, dermis, hypodermis)
  28. Fascia
    Specializations include the superficial and deep layers of tissue below the skin
  29. Muscle
    Consists of skeletal, smooth and cardiac divisions
  30. Bone
    Skeleton consists of an axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton
  31. Axial skeleton
    • Skull
    • Spine
    • Thorax
  32. Appendicular skeleton
    Upper and lower limbs
  33. Fat
    Panniculus adiposis or hypodermis
  34. Tela subcutanea
    The panniculus adiposis along with its underlying superficial membranous fascia
  35. Average surface area of skin
    1.8 square meters
  36. Functions of the Skin (PASTE)
    • Protection: via loose pliable covering, which is generally thicker on extensor surfaces
    • Absorption: Vitamin D is stored in the skin, and UV light allows release
    • Sensation: temperature regulation
    • Excretion: through sweating, non-protein nitrogen, a by-product of liver may be eliminated
  37. Benefit of Vitamin D
    • Facilitates absorption of Ca++ from the GI tract
    • Ca++ is an important bone constituent
  38. Epidermis
    Outer layer which consists of vegetative intermitotics (cells that continuously reproduce) with keratinized layer
  39. Keratin
    A protein, which is high in sulfur content
  40. Dermis (Corium)
    Has 2 layers- superficial (papillary layer) and deep (reticular layer)
  41. Superficial (Papillary Layer)
    Consists of papillae that project into the epidermis and carry vasculature to the epidermis
  42. Deep (Reticular Layer)
    Consists of a network of collagen elastic fibers
  43. Microanatomy of the skin
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Tela Subcutanea
  44. Tela Subcutanea
    • Hypodermis
    • Stratum fibrosum- surrounds exterior of muscle and is superficial to muscle
  45. Hypodermis
    Layer of fat (panniculus adiposis)
  46. Stratum fibrosum
    • Surrounds exterior of muscle and is superficial to muscle
    • aka superficial fascia
  47. Hair
    • Distribute over the skin and is absent on glabrous surfaces (lips)
    • Contained within the follicle (tube of infolding epidermis)
    • Produced at the base of the follicle and consists of keratinized epithelium
  48. Arrector pili
    • Smooth muscle coursing from the root of the hair follicle to the dermis
    • Muscle is under sympathetic contral and contraction produces piloerection and squeezing of the heir follicle (goose bumps)
  49. Sebaceous glands
    • Ubiquitous, but absent in the palm of the hands and soles of the feet
    • Sebum production clogs the hair follicle and produces acne
    • Oily secretion contains cell parts and because the entire secretory cell is lost also called holocrine gland
  50. Sweat glands
    • Ubiquitous, but absent in the glans penis and labia minora
    • Termed eccrine gland bc none of the cell is secreted
    • Secretions are thin, watery, and high in NaCl 
    • Glands under sympathetic control
  51. Apocrine glands
    Sweat glands enlarged around the anus and armpit which suggests that only part of the cell is secreted
  52. Nails
    Keratinized epithelium produced at the base of the nail bed
  53. Mammary gland
    Modified sweat gland
  54. Boundaries of mammary glands in females
    • Superior: 2nd or 3rd rib
    • Inferior: 6th or 7th costal cartilage
    • Lateral: Anterior axillary fold
    • Medial: Lateral border of sternum
  55. Two portions of mammary gland
    • Parenchyma (functional part)
    • Stroma (supportive, connective tissue part)
  56. Lymphatic drainage of the breast
    • Important because of the prevalence of breast cancer in women
    • Cancer follows lymphatic channels to axillary nodes
  57. Radical Mastectomy
    • Surgery done after breast biopsy
    • Breast axillary lymph nodes and part of the pectoralis major is removed
  58. 5 groups of axillary lymph nodes
    • Lateral group (around axillary artery)
    • Central group
    • Pectoral group
    • Subscapular group
    • Apical group
  59. Types of muscle tissue
    • Smooth
    • Cardiac
    • Skeletal
  60. Smooth tissue
    • Walls of hollow viscera (GI tract, blood vessels)
    • Innervation via autonomic nervous system
  61. Cardiac muscle
    • Myocardium
    • No innervation needed, except for regulation of rate/contractile strength
    • Has inherent contractility
  62. Skeletal muscle
    • Voluntary
    • 40% of body mass in normal adults and is the type of muscle attached to the skeleton for moving and supporting joints
  63. Muscle contraction
    • Muscle always pulls a joint through an excursion 
    • Muscle may contract up to 57% of its resting length
  64. Muscular action
    • Movements of joints generally represent combined actions of several muscles:
    • -Prime mover
    • -Synergists
    • -Fixators
    • -Antagonists
  65. Prime mover
    • Certain muscles whose main function is to produce a specific action
    • Ex: prime mover for elbow flexion is brachialis
  66. Synergists
    Assist prime mover, and compliment its action
  67. Fixators
    Immobilize a joint while another joint is activated
  68. Antagonists
    • Stabilize a joint while the opposite prime movers are contracting, thus preventing undesired actions (dislocation) during movement of the joint
    • Ex: while flexors are flexing, extensors are providing stabilization for joints being flexed
  69. Microanatomy of muscle
    • A muscle fiber comprised of muscle cells
    • Fibers multinucleated with nuclei located at the periphery of the fiber (syncytial arrangment)
  70. Epimysium
    • Whole sheath around a muscle 
    • Synonymous with deep fascia, which is connective tissue holding the muscle fibers together 
    • Consists of collagenous fibers
  71. Tendons
    • Cause a joint to move
    • Muscle must attach to bones around the joint through these.
    • Formed by aggregation of sarcolemma, which is the cell membrane surrounding the muscle fibers
  72. Aponeurosis (fleet sheet of connective tissue)
    • Attachment of muscles to each other
    • Relatively avascular
  73. Pennate
    Featherlike appearance of the muscle fibers approaching tendons
  74. Examples of pennate
    • Unipennate
    • Bipennate
    • Circumpennate
    • Multipennate
  75. Unipennate
    Muscle fibers approach tendon from one side
  76. Bipennate
    Muscle fibers approach tendon from 2 directions in flat plane
  77. Circumpennate
    Muscle fibers approach tendon from all directions
  78. Multipennate
    Multiples of unipennate, bipennate, circumpennate
  79. Proprioception
    The sensory aspect of input into the nervous system regarding the status of a muscle at any given time
  80. Proprioception provides information for
    • Degree of contraction of muscles
    • State of tension in the tendon
    • Sensory information from joints - monitors the position of the limbs in space, and is necessary for coordination of movement
  81. Functions of bone
    • Support of the body
    • Movement (levers)
    • Blood producers (from red bone marrow)
    • Storage (Ca++, PO4)
  82. Bone shapes
    • Long: humerus, femur
    • Short: carpals, tarsals
    • Flat: cranium
    • Sesamoid: patella
    • Wormian: in sutures of the skull
    • Irregular: vertebrae
  83. Two sources of bone development
    • Intramembranous ossification
    • Endochondral ossification
  84. Intramembranous ossification
    Fibrous membrane, which forms intramembranous bone, typified by the bones of the skull
  85. Endochondral ossification
    Cartilage, which forms endochondral bone as typified by the long bones
  86. Intramembranous ossification process
    • 1. Starts with dens membrane from mesoderm
    • 2. Bone forming cells, or osteoblasts, produce osteoid tissue which becomes impregnated with (Ca++ and PO4) to form a matrix
    • 3. Periosteum surrounds dense membrane, after osteoblasts from the inner surface of the matrix- periosteum layer deposit bone
  87. Types of periosteum layer deposit bone
    • Spongy bone- random matrix with soft, open spaces which forms the interior of the bone (inner table)
    • Compact bone- parallel matrix which is hard and dense, that forms the exterior surface of the bone (outer table)
  88. Endochondral ossification process
    • 1. Cartilaginous mold of the bone forms initially in the developing embryo
    • 2. Osteoblasts invade the cartilaginous mold and lay down osteoid, with subsequent impregnation by Ca++ and PO4 matrix
    • 3. Gradually the cartilage is replaced by bone; however, cartilage persists at the ends of the bone as epiphyseal plates
  89. Achondroplasia
    • Form of dwarfism that is caused by mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3).
    • In normal development it has a negative regulatory effect on bone groth. In this, the mutated form of the receptor is constitutively active and leads to severly shortened bones
  90. Bone Marrow Development
    • Granular material found within the spongy portion of bones which form blood cells
    • Red in children with growth and development and is only retained in certain bones
  91. Adult bone marrow identification
    • Red Marrow
    • Yellow Marrow
  92. Red Marrow
    • Sternum, ribs
    • Iliac crest
    • Vertebral bodies
  93. Yellow Marrow
    • Long bones- nonfunctional, fatty tissue and has replaced
    • Red marrow to occupy the "marrow cavity"
Card Set
Lecture 1-4 Self Study
Intro Exam