Circulatory System and Immunity

  1. functions of the circulatory system
    • 1) transport gases, nutrients, and waste materials
    • 2) Regulation of internal body temp and transport hormones
    • 3) Protects against blood loss and toxic substances introduced into the body
  2. Blood Vessels
    • Arteries: Carries oxygen-rich blood away from the heart
    • Veins: carry oxygen-poor blood towards the heart
    • Capillaries: tiny vessels separating arteries and veins where gases, nutrients, and other materials are transferred to cells
  3. Arteries
    • Keeps oxygen-rich blood away from the heart
    • - Has thick and highly elastic walls
    • - expands as the blood flows through the constriction and relaxation of ventricles.
    • - Keeps the blood flowing in the right dirrection
  4. Veins
    • Carries oxygen-poor blood towards the heart
    • - has thin and non-elastic walls 
    • - cannot contract to help move blood back to the heart
    • -has valves that prevents blood from flowing backwards
  5. Capillaries
    • A small blood vessel that is just large enough for the largest blood cell to fit through. 
    • - They play a key role in the absorption, transport, and release of nutrients, gases, and wastes produced in the body.
  6. Vasoconstriction
    decreases the blood flow near the skin to conserve heat
  7. Vasodilation
    Increases blood flow near the skin to help release heat
  8. Functions of the heart
    • 1) Pumo blood throughout the body
    • 2) ensure blood flow only moves in one direction
    • 3) Separate oxygen-rich blood from oxygen-poor blood
  9. Heart chambers
    Atrium: top two chambers that fill with the blood returning to the heart

    Ventricles: bottom two chambers that receive blood from the atria and pump it away from the heart

    Septum: thick muscular wall that separates the right from left
  10. Atrioventricular Valves
    Tricuspid: On the right side separating the right atrium and right ventricle

    Bicuspid: On the left side separating the left atrium and left ventricle
  11. Semilunar Valves
    Pulmonary: Separating the right ventricle

    Aortic: separating the left ventricle from the aorta
  12. Vena Cava
    Where oxygen-poor blood enters into the right atrium

    • Superior: top half
    • Inferior: bottom half
  13. Aorta
    where the left ventricle pumps blood though to get all the body tissue
  14. Pulmonary Pathway
    Transports oxygen-poor blood to the alveoli in the lungs
  15. Systemic Pathway
    Transport oxygen-rich blood to deliver nutrients and remove wastes from cells throughout the body
  16. Sequence of travel of the heartbeat
    1)SA Node: The pacemaker of the heart - stimulates the muscles to contract and relax rhythmically 

    2)AV Node: They relay the signal from the SA node to the Purkinje fibres through the bundle of his

    3)Bundle of His: Relayyyy

    4)Purkinje fibres: Initiates the contractions of the left and right ventricles
  17. Blood pressure
    Systolic: Maximum blood pressure during ventricular contraction. Increases the pressure in the pulmonary arteries and aorta.

    Diastolic: the lowest pressure before the ventricles contract again. Drops the pressure
  18. Components of blood
    • Fluid Portion: Plasma
    • Solid Portion: Formed portion
  19. Plasma
    Where red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are suspended
  20. Red Blood Cells
    • Erythrocytes
    • Specialized for ozygen transport and allows large quantities of oxygen to be transported in the blood due to hemoglobin binding with oxygen.

    Produced in the bone marrow.
  21. White blood cells

    Part of the body's responce to infection.
  22. Platelets
    • Fragments of cells that form when large cells in the bone marrow break apart. 
    • Play a key role in lood clotting to prevent excessive blood loss after injury.
  23. Blood groups
    A, B, AB, and O

    Can be rh- or rh+

    the differences between them are the antigens
  24. aggulation
    The clumping of red blood cells that can block circulation
  25. The RH factor
    Rh- can donate to rh+ but rh+ cannot donate to rh-
  26. Lymph
    • - Made up of interstitial fluid
    • - colourless
    • - composition similar to plasma
    • - WBC highway
    • - vessels of lymphatic system and eventually rejoins the circulatory system
  27. Lymph Node
    Glands found
Card Set
Circulatory System and Immunity