Process of exchanging information over electrical, electromagnetic or digital networks in the form of data, voice and video by medium of light or electrical signals.
A system of nodes and links.
Wireless is a type using radio waves.
- Signals run on different wires separate from the electric wires.
- The equipment requires electricity to run.
- Public Switch Telephone Network
- total circuit switch-based telephone network—continuous signal—analog—transmits entire message
- Wired network, repeaters, wires,cables, switches
Telegraph old; new mediums include fiber optics, cat5e and radio frequency. Also coaxial
Cat5e smaller than electric wires.
A telecommunications network able to carry video because of the available bandwidth
Example is voip - telecommunication technology. Convergence between voice and data networks.
Protocols make it faster and establish circuits
Types of telecommunication networks
- Wireless (uses radio waves to send signals over a radio spectrum)
Travels across nodes and links
Telecommunications network composed of inter connected computers using IP protocol. Aka TCP/IP
Can use coaxial but fiber and radio frequency (wireless) more common.
Links telecommunication networks over long distance
Unit of data forwarded by a network
Somethings it includes is destination, relay information, error detection
Two types of basic networks
LAN - floor or building
WAN - collection of business that communicate through the internet using IP protocol, private networks or pots. Traffic is transmitted through the cloud. Can be virtual.
A interconnected network composed of the internet or PSTN
A data communications system that uses cable or wireless media to transmit and receive signals.
Protocols ensure what?
Quality and accuracy of the transmission and that the transmission is understood by the other end.
Set of rules applied to data switched networks
Post Office Protocol
Retrieves email from a server and sits in the application layer of the IP model.
A set of rules applied to data switched networks to ensure quality and accuracy of signal transmission and reception
Wifi IEEE 802.11 wireless communication protocol used to connect devices in a LAN environment
- 30 feet
- Wireless protocol used to connect devices over a short distance.
QoS measures what?
Performance for specific types of data communication and ensure effectively transmitted.
- Point to Point Protocol
- Encryption is used to ensure the privacy of the content being communicated.
- Networks create a ppp packet digital circuit in circuit switching
Packet Switching does what?
Groups data in packets and runs in multiple sessions.
Use for data not voice - data doesn’t meet QoS
Discrete signals, binary data
Can follow different routes—more efficient—independent of network topology
Circuit switching is for what?
- Create a point to point packet digital circuit in circuit switching
- Is fixed packet size and rates of transmission—path decided before transmisson
- Circuit is dedicated for entire duration of session—older—more expensive—higher quality—independent of network topology
Voice data transmitted in a virtual circuit is also circuit switching
ATM provides quality of data.
- Requires a specific type of hardware to function TCP/IP does not as it recognized by most operating systems.
- Like TCP/IP Ethernet is packet based data transfer standard—not virtual circuit
- Asynchronous Transfer Mode
- Designed to provide quality of data of voice and video via circuit switching
A network protocol designed to handle broadband integrated services such as voice and video—virtual circuit
Frame relay is a packet switching network protocol used to establish circuit switching for voice or video
Network analyzer aka packet analyzer
Can be used by hackers to obtain authentication information needed to hack a network.
Can be hardware or software
Not related to data communication protocols
Hubs repeaters switches and routers inside a network DO NOT perform firewall duties.
Sends data traffic to different destinations connecting single networks
NOT assigned an IP address
Network device passes packets to the next network node
Connects multiple networks together
Forwards data packets between those separate networks.
- Optimize high volume data transmission; connects to enterprise’s internet backbone; aggregates data to max bandwidth
- Only need if direct connect to backbone is needed
- Have power to handle multiple protocols
- Connect with different media
Edge router / boundary router
Transfers data packets between one or more lans and an atm network.
In network topologies are used to connect or link sep networks but bridges do not have data switching capability
Ie some pcs connect via Ethernet and some wireless routers
Combines data signals and data packets traveling over networks from multiple devices in to a single signal
Multiplexing is the process of combining multiple signals
Do not serve broadcast function
Do not store data
Peer to peer
- Small networks don’t have server; share files with each other -start
- Notes share equally —-ring, mesh
Client server topology needing a server
2 modern elements in networking infrastructure
Tcpip the format of the packet in order to communicate
- 4 -layers - Nita- network, internet, transport, application
- TCP establishes the connection and the quality of data packet transmission
- App -
- Transport layer - hot to host communications as well on local network or network remote
- Internet layer - exchanges data sequences data grams
- Network - includes protocols used to describe the layout and interfaces for transmission
Analog network —voice video data but had capacity and bandwidth limitations
Analog signals are long continuous electrical waveform signals
When network down no phones
- Near Field Communications
- Set of communication protocols that enable two electronic devices to establish communication by bringing them with4 cm (1.6in) of each other ie telphone paying for purchases
Systems smart so they will be able to communicate via the internet to automate servicing needs