LastClass_Unit 5

  1. Telecommunications
    Process of exchanging information over electrical, electromagnetic or digital networks in the form of data, voice and video by medium of light or electrical signals.

    A system of nodes and links.

    Wireless is a type using radio waves.

    • Signals run on different wires separate from the electric wires.
    • The equipment requires electricity to run.
  2. PSTN
    • Public Switch Telephone Network
    • total circuit switch-based telephone network—continuous signal—analog—transmits entire message
    • Wired network, repeaters, wires,cables, switches

    Telegraph old; new mediums include fiber optics, cat5e and radio frequency. Also coaxial

    Cat5e smaller than electric wires.
  3. Broadband
    A telecommunications network able to carry video because of the available bandwidth

    Example is voip - telecommunication technology. Convergence between voice and data networks.

    Protocols make it faster and establish circuits
  4. Types of telecommunication networks
    • Wireless (uses radio waves to send signals over a radio spectrum)
    • Phone
    • Internet

    Travels across nodes and links
  5. Internet
    Telecommunications network composed of inter connected computers using IP protocol. Aka TCP/IP

    Can use coaxial but fiber and radio frequency (wireless) more common.
  6. Satellite communications
    Links telecommunication networks over long distance
  7. Packet
    Unit of data forwarded by a network

    Somethings it includes is destination, relay information, error detection
  8. Two types of basic networks
    LAN - floor or building

    WAN - collection of business that communicate through the internet using IP protocol, private networks or pots. Traffic is transmitted through the cloud. Can be virtual.
  9. Cloud
    A interconnected network composed of the internet or PSTN
  10. Computer Network
    A data communications system that uses cable or wireless media to transmit and receive signals.
  11. Protocols ensure what?
    Quality and accuracy of the transmission and that the transmission is understood by the other end.

    Set of rules applied to data switched networks
  12. POP
    Post Office Protocol

    Retrieves email from a server and sits in the application layer of the IP model.
  13. Protocol
    A set of rules applied to data switched networks to ensure quality and accuracy of signal transmission and reception

    Wifi IEEE 802.11 wireless communication protocol used to connect devices in a LAN environment
  14. Bluetooth
    • 30 feet
    • Wireless protocol used to connect devices over a short distance.
  15. QoS measures what?
    Performance for specific types of data communication and ensure effectively transmitted.
  16. PPP
    • Point to Point Protocol
    • Encryption is used to ensure the privacy of the content being communicated.
    • Networks create a ppp packet digital circuit in circuit switching
  17. Packet Switching does what?
    Groups data in packets and runs in multiple sessions.

    Use for data not voice - data doesn’t meet QoS

    Discrete signals, binary data

    Can follow different routes—more efficient—independent of network topology
  18. Circuit switching is for what?
    • Voice
    • Create a point to point packet digital circuit in circuit switching

    • Is fixed packet size and rates of transmission—path decided before transmisson
    • Circuit is dedicated for entire duration of session—older—more expensive—higher quality—independent of network topology

    Voice data transmitted in a virtual circuit is also circuit switching

    ATM provides quality of data.
  19. Ethernet
    • Requires a specific type of hardware to function TCP/IP does not as it recognized by most operating systems.
    • Like TCP/IP Ethernet is packet based data transfer standard—not virtual circuit
  20. ATM
    • Asynchronous Transfer Mode
    • Designed to provide quality of data of voice and video via circuit switching

    A network protocol designed to handle broadband integrated services such as voice and video—virtual circuit

    Frame relay is a packet switching network protocol used to establish circuit switching for voice or video
  21. Network analyzer aka packet analyzer
    Can be used by hackers to obtain authentication information needed to hack a network.
  22. Firewalll
    Can be hardware or software

    Not related to data communication protocols

    Hubs repeaters switches and routers inside a network DO NOT perform firewall duties.
  23. Switch
    Sends data traffic to different destinations connecting single networks

    NOT assigned an IP address
  24. Router
    Network device passes packets to the next network node

    Connects multiple networks together

    Forwards data packets between those separate networks.
  25. Core routers
    More powerful

    • Optimize high volume data transmission; connects to enterprise’s internet backbone; aggregates data to max bandwidth
    • Only need if direct connect to backbone is needed
    • Have power to handle multiple protocols
    • Connect with different media
    • Expensive
  26. Edge router / boundary router
    Transfers data packets between one or more lans and an atm network.
  27. Bridges
    In network topologies are used to connect or link sep networks but bridges do not have data switching capability

    Link networks

    Ie some pcs connect via Ethernet and some wireless routers
  28. Multiplexer
    Combines data signals and data packets traveling over networks from multiple devices in to a single signal

    Multiplexing is the process of combining multiple signals
  29. Repeaters
    Repeat signal

    Do not serve broadcast function

    Do not store data
  30. Peer to peer
    • Small networks don’t have server; share files with each other -start
    • Notes share equally —-ring, mesh


    Client server topology needing a server
  31. 2 modern elements in networking infrastructure

    Tcpip the format of the packet in order to communicate
  32. TCP
    • 4 -layers - Nita- network, internet, transport, application
    • TCP establishes the connection and the quality of data packet transmission

    • App -
    • Transport layer - hot to host communications as well on local network or network remote
    • Internet layer - exchanges data sequences data grams
    • Network - includes protocols used to describe the layout and interfaces for transmission
  33. POTS
    Analog network —voice video data but had capacity and bandwidth limitations

    Analog signals are long continuous electrical waveform signals
  34. Convergence
    When network down no phones
  35. NFC
    • Near Field Communications
    • Set of communication protocols that enable two electronic devices to establish communication by bringing them with4 cm (1.6in) of each other ie telphone paying for purchases
  36. IoT
    Systems smart so they will be able to communicate via the internet to automate servicing needs

    Service automation
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LastClass_Unit 5