Lymphatic system

  1. Lymphatic system function
    • maintain balance of fluids in body
    • works with white blood cells to fight off infection
  2. Lymph
    • interstitial fluid (plasma)
    • colourless or pale yellow
    • composition is much like plasma
    • much more fluid-like than blood
    • as blood circulates, some plasma leaks and becomes part of interstitial fluid
    • lymph forms in close-ended tubes in capillary beds
  3. Lymphatic valve
    prevent backflow
  4. Lymph nodes
    • store lymphatic cells while they develop
    • contain macrophages that trap and destroy bacteria
    • an infection may cause
  5. First line of defence: physical
    • non-specific, will destroy EVERYTHING
    • skin, mucous membranes, hair, cilia
    • oil on skin has bactericides, kills bacteria
    • sweat has low pH, kills bacteria
    • lysozyme secreted in bodily fluids also kills bacteria
    • tears wash away bacteria
  6. Second line of defence: macrophage
    • non-specific, will destroy EVERYTHING
    • only come into play if bad stuff gets into blood
    • specialized white blood cells eat the invader by phagocytosis
    • produces pus
    • neutrophils attack infected cells destroying the cell and the microbes
  7. Inflammatory response
    redness, heat, and pain
  8. Phagocytosis
    wrapping cell membrane around bad cells, eats it pacman style
  9. Third line of defence: immunity
    • bad stuff activates specific cells
    • intrusion of bad stuff creates antibodies
  10. Antigen
    protein nametag/identifier
  11. T-cells
    • produced in bone marrow, stored in thymus
    • 3 types: helper, killer, suppressor
    • killer aka cytotoxic T-cells, go and kill anything with a specific nametag
    • helper T-cells recognise a specific nametag and signal to the B-cells to make antibodies for it
    • suppressor T-cells suppress other cells
  12. B-cells
    • made and stored in bone marrow
    • memory
    • makes antibodies
  13. Third line of defence: immunity
    intrusion of bad guys stimulates antibody production
  14. Foreign body can use its antigen to bind to a cell, killing the cell
  15. Lymphokine
    • chemical sent by helper T cell 
    • reaches B cells, causes them to divide rapidly and produce the antibody to the invader
  16. Helper T cell
    • activates killer T cells
    • activates lymphokine
  17. Autoimmune disorder meaning
    T cells/antibodies attack body's own cells
  18. Rh factor
    makes a blood type positive or negative
  19. Blood types
    • A, B, AB, O
    • different blood types have different antigens
    • A: A antigen, Anti-B antibody
    • B: B antigen, Anti-A antibody
    • AB: A, and B antigen, no antibodies, universal accepter
    • O: Anti-A, Anti-B antibodies, no antigens, universal donor
  20. Agglutination
    • clumping of red blood cells
    • happens when wrong blood type is donated
  21. Rhesus factor marker
    • means positive blood type
    • Rh- can donate to Rh+, but Rh+ cannot donate to Rh-
  22. Lack of Rhesus factor marker
    means negative blood negative
  23. O positive versus O negative
    • O positive can only donate to O positive, A positive, B positive, AB positive
    • O negative is the true universal donor
  24. erythroblastosis fetalis
    mum's, dad's blood types conflict, blood starts to agglutinate
  25. 2 types of allergies
    • Acute: occur within seconds, disappear within 30 minutes, body releases histamines, making blood vessels more permeable, skin swollen and red, antibodies release fluids to flush out the bad stuff
    • Delayed: set off by T-cells, slower and last longer
  26. HIV versus AIDS
    • HIV is the virus
    • AIDS is the symptom
    • HIV virus destroys helper T cells
    • body fluid to body fluid
Card Set
Lymphatic system