ANT 154A.txt

  1. What are the characteristics of the Sterepsirrhini?
    • no post orbital plate
    • long snout
    • epitheliochorial placenta (primitive)
    • SHARED- PRIMITIVE
    • ⇨unfused mandibular symphysis
    • SHARED-DERIVED
    • ⇨dental combe [exceptions= Indriidae (Indri, Sifaka) and Daubentuniidae (Aye-aye)]
    • ⇨grooming claw on the 2nd pedal digit
    • Image Upload 1
  2. Infraorder- Lemuriformes
    Superfamily- Lemuroidea

    Are ALL ... and have ....
    • ...from Madagascar
    • ...5 Families:
    • Lemuroidae (Lemurs)
    • Cheirogaleidae (Dwarf Lemurs)
    • Lepilemuridae (aka Megaladapidae; Sportive Lemurs)
    • Indriidae (Indri, Sifaka)
    • Daubentoniidae (Aye-aye)
  3. Infraorder- Lemuriformes
    Superfamily- Lemuroidea
    Family- Lemuridae
    Are all... and have...
    • Diurnal (can only be active in the day) or Cathemeral (can be active at anytime)
    • 5 Genera:
    • Lemur
    • Eulemur
    • Prolemur
    • Hapalemur
    • Varecia
  4. Superfamily- Lemuroidea
    Family- Lemuridae
    Genus- Lemur
    Have...
    • 1 Species- catta (Ring-tailed Lemur)
    • -Southern Madagascar
    • -2.2kg
    • -Multi-male, multi-female groups: 3-27
    • -Females in groups related
    • -Home range: 6-35ha (hectares=100 meters)
    • -Omnivorous
    • -Diurnal
    • -Comfortable on ground and trees
    • -Females dominant over males
    • -Territorial groups, with females actively defending boundaries
    • -Males disperse from natal groups, females remain
    • -Females organized into linear dominance hierarchies
    • -Sometimes females engage in "targeted aggression" and force low-ranking females to leave the group (if not enough space in home range)
    • Image Upload 2
  5. Superfamily- Lemuroidea
    Family- Lemuridae
    Genus- Eulemur
    Have...
    • 7 Species- fulvus (Brown Lemur)
    • Widespread in Madagascar
    • 1.8-2.6kg
    • Multi-male, multi-female groups that may split up and coalesce (fission-fusion): 6-12; E. rubriventer lives in single-male, single-female pairs
    • Home range: 1-100 ha
    • Omnivorous
    • Sexually dichromatic (males and females differ in color)
    • All Eulemur species chathemeral, either shifting seasonally or during a given 24-hr period
    • Both males and females can disperse from their natal groups
    • Personal space seems not well-developed (at least in E. fulvus)Image Upload 3
  6. Superfamily- Lemuroidea
    Family- Lemuridae
    Genus- Hapalemur
    Have...
    • 4 Species- griseus (Gray Bamboo Lemur)
    • Widespread
    • .7-1.2kg
    • Flexible groupings (male/female pairs, multi-male, multi-female groups): 1-9
    • Home range: 6-26 ha
    • Bamboo specialists; able to withstand heavy doses of cyanide found in bamboo; also feeds on grasses
    • Both sexes disperse from their natal groups
    • Offspring parked and retrieved
    • Image Upload 4
  7. Superfamily- Lemuroidea
    Family- Lemuridae
    Genus- Prolemur
    Have...
    • 1 Species- simus (Greater bamboo lemur)
    • Southeastern Madagascar
    • 2.4 kg
    • Multi-male, multi-female groups: 4-12
    • Home range: 62 ha (1 group)
    • Bamboo specialist
    • Not much else known about this genus
    • Image Upload 5
  8. Superfamily- Lemuroidea
    Family- Lemuridae
    Genus- Varencia
    Have...
    • 1 Species, 2 Subspecies- variegata (Black and White Ruffed Lemur)
    • East coast, prone to cyclones
    • 3-4.5 kg
    • Flexible groupings (single foragers, pairs, multi-male, multi-female groups): 2-31
    • Home range: 2-31 ha
    • Highly frugivorous (fruit eaters)
    • Have litters of offspring and nest (park) them, not carry them
    • Highest intrisnsic rate of population growth of any primate for their body size (because of short gestation, litters, allonursing (other females nurse) nest-guarding, and rapid development)
    • Main pollinators of Traveler's palm, an ancient plant in Madagascar (suggesting Varecia may be as old as this plant, >80my old!)
    • Image Upload 6
  9. Infraorder- Lemuriformes
    Superfamily- Lemuroidea
    Family- Cheirogaleidae
    Are all... and
    have...
    • Nocturnal
    • 5 Genera:
    • Microcebus
    • Mirza
    • Cheirogaleus
    • Phaner
    • Allocebus
  10. Superfamily- Lemuroidea
    Family- Cheirogaleidae
    Genus- Microcebus
    Have...
    • 19 Species- murinus (Gray Mouse Lemur)
    • Widespread
    • 30-90 g
    • Solitary foragers, females are communal sleepers
    • Home range: .22-3.2 ha
    • Omnivorous, insectivorous
    • Individuals forage alone but sleep in nests with related females
    • Sleeping groups have overlapping home ranges with other sleeping groups
    • During low food availability, can go into torpor (become inactive); some species store fat in their tails Twinning typical, offspring parked in holes or carried.Image Upload 7
  11. Superfamily- Lemuroidea
    Family- Cheirogaleidae
    Genus- Mirza
    Have..

    • 2 Species- coquereli (Giant Mouse Lemur)
    • Western and northwestern coastal forests
    • 300 g
    • Solitary foragers, communal sleepers
    • Home range: 4 ha
    • Omnivorous (likes to eat secretions of insect larvae)
    • Solitary foragers but females have extensively overlapping home ranges with female relatives
    • Male home ranges non-overlapping except during breeding seasonImage Upload 8
  12. Superfamily- Lemuroidea
    Family- Cheirogaleidae
    Genus- Cheirogaleus
    Have...
    • 7 Species- medius (Fat-tailed Dwarf Lemur)
    • Southwestern forests
    • 75-400 g
    • Solitary foragers, monogamous mating system
    • Home range: 4 ha
    • Omnivorous (likes to eat secretions of insect larvae)
    • Males and females may share the same home range but forage separately
    • Litters common; mother carries offspring in mouth
    • Goes into torpor when food resources are low; stores fat in tailImage Upload 9
  13. Superfamily- Lemuroidea
    Family- Cheirogaleidae
    Genus- Phaner
    Have..

    • 1 Species- furcifer (Fork-marked Lemur)
    • Western, northern Madagascar
    • 360-500 g
    • Solitary foragers; male/female co-sleeping pairs
    • Home range: 3.8-4 ha
    • Gummivorous (eats gum from trees)
    • One male and one female share the same exclusive home range but forage separately
    • Nest in tree holes
    • Male highly vocal
    • Goal-directed foraging on gums (traplining)
    • Tooth comb specialized for gouging holes in trees to get gum to flowImage Upload 10
  14. Superfamily- Lemuroidea
    Family- Cheirogaleidae
    Genus- Allocebus
    Have..

    • 1 Species- trichotis (Hairy-eared dwarf Lemur)
    • -Northeastern rainforest
    • -75-80 g
    • -Solitary foragers? Communal sleepers
    • -Long tongue: nectivorous?
    • -Fat storage over entire body, not just the tail
    • -Diet: observed eating fruit, honey, locusts, and presumably nectar
    • -Sleeps in holes with others (strepserrhini)
    • Image Upload 11
  15. Superfamily- Lemuroidea
    Family- Lepilemuridae (Megaladapidae)
    1 Genus- Lepilemur
    Have..

    • 26 Species-leucopus (White-footed Sportive Lemur)
    • Southern dry forests
    • 550 g
    • Solitary foragers
    • Home range: .18-.3 ha
    • Highly folivorous (eats leaves)
    • Missing both upper incisors
    • Dentition: [incisor, canine, premolars, molars]-> 0133/2133 (top/bottom row)
    • Caecotrophic: re-ingests fecal pellets (like a rabbits do) to increase acquisition of nutrients
    • Folivory is unusual for such a small-bodied primate
    • Social systems somewhat variable, ranging from solitary foraging to male/female pair foraging and solitary to co-sleeping
    • Image Upload 12
Author
colorpencil1
ID
355355
Card Set
ANT 154A.txt
Description
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Updated