Group of skeletal dysplasias primary characterized by punctate calcifications in cartilage (calcific stippling)
Genetic disorder characterized by osteoclast dysfunction that leads to excessive osteoid tissue formation
Acquired disease in which the osteoclast dysfunction initially causes excessive removal of bone and is later deposited at different rates during the different stages of the disease
Paget's disease (osteitis deformans)
Softening of bone due to poor and delayed calcification
Bone disorder caused by mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3
Osteoporosis is usually not visible on conventional radiographs until at least ___% of bone mineral has been lost
Procedure of greatest clinical utility for measuring bone density
Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan
Senile and postmenopausal osteoporosis are examples of primary osteoporosis.
Meanwhile, secondary osteoporosis occurs in association with other conditons (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, vitamin D deficiency), medications (e.g. phenytoin, corticosteroids), or disuse with immobility.
BMD is within 1 SD of a "young normal" adult
BMD is between 1 and 2.5 SDs below that of a "young normal" adult
BMD is 2.5 SDs or more below that of a "young normal" adult
More fractures occur in persons with osteopenia compared to those with osteoporosis.
Persons with osteopenia far outnumber those with osteoporosis; thus, more fractures occur in the osteopenic population.
Recommended daily calcium intake for 19-50 years old
D) 1000 mg/d
Recommended daily calcium intake for >50 years old
D) 1200 mg/d
Which age range has the highest recommended daily calcium intake?
A) 9-18 years
The recommended daily intake for the following age ranges are as follows:
1. 0-6 months = 210 mg/d
2. 4-8 years = 800 mg/d
3. 9-18 years = 1300 mg/d
4. > 50 years = 1200 mg/d
Pregnant or lactating women who are 18 years or younger require higher daily calcium intake than their older counterparts.
Pregnant or lactating women who are 18 years old or younger require 1300 mg of calcium per day; whereas those who are aged 19-50 years only require 1000 mg/d.
At what age can a child begin to intake calcium via solid food?
D) 7-12 months
At 0-6 months of age, calcium intake only comes from human milk.
For men and women aged 50 or older, the current recommendation for daily intake of vitamin D is 800-1000 IU/day.
To aid in absorption of calcium and mineralization of bone, this is commonly prescribed as a supplement for patients who lack the 1-α-hydroxylase enzyme because of severe renal impairment
Vitamin D supplements can increase the risk for kidney stones, hypercalciuria, nephrolithias, or even nephrocalcinosis in patients at risk.
Vitamin D supplements can cause such risks because they increase calcium absorption in the gut.
For optimal bone health, an exercise program should include: