Human Growth and Development

  1. Flexor withdrawal is elicited by
    Noxious stimulus at the sole of the foot
  2. Flexor withdrawal response
    Toe extension, ankle dorsiflexion, flexion of entire lower extremity uncontrollably
  3. Flexor withdrawal onset
    28 weeks of gestation
  4. Flexor withdrawal integration
    1-2 months
  5. Crossed extensor is elicited by
    Noxious stimulus at the ball of the foot
  6. Crossed extensor response
    Opposite lower extremity flexes, adducts, and extends
  7. Crossed extensor onset
    28 weeks of gestation
  8. Crossed extensor integration
    1-2 months
  9. Moro reflex is elicited by
    Sudden change in head position in relation to the trunk or sudden head extension produced by a light drop of the head
  10. Moro reflex response
    Sudden extension and abduction, hand opening, and crying followed by flexion and adduction of arms across the chest
  11. Moro reflex onset
    28 weeks of gestation
  12. Moro reflex integration
    5-6 months
  13. Traction is elicited by
    Grasp forearm or pull from supine to sitting
  14. Traction response
    Grasps PT's forearm and total flexion
  15. Traction onset
    28 weeks of gestation
  16. Traction integration
    2-5 months
  17. Plantar grasp stimulus
    Maintained pressure on ball of foot
  18. Plantar grasp response
    Flexion of toes
  19. Plantar grasp onset
    28 weeks of gestation
  20. Plantar grasp integration
    9 months
  21. Palmar grasp stimulus
    Maintained pressure on palm of hand
  22. Palmar grasp response
    Flexion of fingers; fist-making
  23. Palmar grasp onset
  24. Palmar grasp integration
    4-6 months
  25. Startle reflex is elicited by
    Sudden loud or harsh noise
  26. Startle reflex response
    Sudden extension and abduction, followed by crying
  27. Startle reflex onset
  28. Startle reflex integration
  29. STNR stimulus
    Cervical flexion or extension
  30. STNR response
    • With cervical flexion, upper extremities flex and lower extremities extend
    • With cervical extension, upper extremities extend and lower extremities flex
  31. STNR onset
    4-6 months
  32. STNR integration
    8-12 months
  33. ATNR stimulus
    Rotation of head to one side for 15 seconds
  34. ATNR response
    Flexion of skull/occiput side extremities and extension of chin/jaw side extremities; fencing position
  35. ATNR onset
  36. ATNR integration
    4-6 months
  37. TLR stimulus
    Prone or supine
  38. TLR response
    Increased extensor tone in supine; increased flexor tone in prone
  39. TLR onset
  40. TLR integration
    4-6 months
  41. Positive support stimulus
    Contact on sole of foot
  42. Positive support response
    Rigid extension of lower extremities
  43. Positive support onset
  44. Positive support integration
    4-6 months
  45. Associated reactions stimulus
    Resisted movement of limb
  46. Associated reactions response
    Opposite limb mimics movement of test limb
  47. Associated reactions onset
    Birth - 3 months
  48. Associated reactions integration
    8-9 years
  49. Scratching the skin of the infant's back from the shoulder downward. 2-3 cm lateral to the spinous process produces incurvation of the trunk, with the concavity on the stimulated side
    Galant reflex
  50. Galant reflex integration
    4 months
  51. Pressing the skin over the pubic bone with the fingers results in reflex extension of both lower extremities, with adduction and internal rotation into talipes equinus
    Suprapubic extensor
  52. Suprapubic extensor integration
    4 weeks
  53. Light tapping of second to fourth toes at their plantar surface produces tonic flexion of the toes at the first metacarpophalangeal joint
    Rossolimo reflex
  54. Rossolimo reflex integration
    4 weeks
  55. Tapping on the heel with a hammer, with the hip and knee joint flexed, and the ankle joint in neutral position results to rapid extension of the stimulated lower extremity
    Heel reflex
  56. Heel reflex integration
    3 weeks
  57. Transfer of traits/characteristics from parents to offsprings
  58. Two like genes for every trait/characteristic represented in sperm or ovum on autosome
  59. Acquisition and refinement of skills
  60. Measure of age of embryo/fetus from first day of last menstruation
    Gestational age
  61. Developing embryo and placental structure
  62. Chromosomal union of ovum and sperm
  63. Product of 28-day ovarian cycle
  64. Increase in physical size and dimension relative to maturity
  65. Linear strand of DNA containing genetic information
  66. Number of daughter cells produced in meiosis
  67. Spherical ball of cell resulting from continuous cellular division of zygote
  68. Cell capable of being implanted to the wall of endometrium
  69. Number of days it takes for a morula to migrate to the uterus
    3-4 days
  70. Number of days a blastocyst stays in the uterus prior to being implanted in the endometrium
    4-5 days
  71. Actual presentation of genes
  72. Total hereditary information concerned with actual pairing of alleles
  73. Release of one or more egg cells capable of being fertilized; occurs due to surge of LH
  74. Primary germinal layer that serves as a precursor for nervous and integumentary systems
  75. Early embryonic cell that serves as precursor of germinal layers
  76. Development of placental structures
    4 weeks
  77. Facial features
    8 weeks
  78. Heartbeat
    10 weeks
  79. Meconium
    16 weeks
  80. Gender reveal
    16 weeks
  81. Sucking and swallowing
    16 weeks
  82. Quickening
    20 weeks
  83. Lanugo
    20 weeks
  84. Vernix caseosa
    24 weeks
  85. Organ maturation
    28 weeks
  86. Visible kicks
    32 weeks
  87. Vellus
    36 weeks
  88. Primary germinal layer which serves as precursor for glands and endothelial lining of digestive and respiratory systems
  89. Mesoderm serves as precursor for
    Musculoskeletal, visceral, cardiovascular, and excretory systems
  90. From 5-8 weeks until term
  91. From implantation to 5-8 weeks
  92. From fertilization to implantation
  93. Stage of cognitive development: logical thinking
    Concrete operational (7-11 years)
  94. Stage of cognitive development: abstract reasoning, problem solving, deductive reasoning, hypothesis making, classification, comparison
    Formal operational (>11 years)
  95. Stage of cognitive development: symbolic language
    Pre-operational (2-7 years)
  96. Stage of cognitive development: object permanence, circular reactions, reflexes
    Sensorimotor (0-2 years)
  97. IQ scoring: 10-19
    Profound MR
  98. IQ scoring: 20-34
    Severe MR
  99. IQ scoring: 35-49
    Moderate MR
  100. IQ scoring: 50-69
    Mild MR
  101. IQ scoring: 70-79
  102. IQ scoring: 80-89
    Below average
  103. IQ scoring 90-109
  104. IQ scoring: 110-119
    Above average
  105. IQ scoring: 120-129
  106. IQ scoring: 130 and above
    Very superior or genius
  107. Stage of psychosexual development: satisfaction from putting things to mouth
    Oral (0-18 months)
  108. Normal head circumference at 12 months
    47 cm
  109. Identify the APGAR score: cries, spontaneously moves, 100 bpm, acrocyanotic
  110. APGAR score indicating the need for supplemental oxygen
  111. Stage of psychosexual development: becomes aware of anatomical sex differences which sets in motion conflict between erotic attraction, resentment, rivalry, jealousy, and fear
    Phallic (3-6 years)
  112. Number of pregnancies
  113. Number of deliveries
  114. Low birth weight
    1500-2500 g
  115. Very low birth weight
    < 1500 g
  116. Normal birth weight
    2500-4000 g
  117. Normal head circumference at birth
    35 cm
  118. Normal head circumference of adult
    57 cm
  119. Normal head circumference at 4 months
    41 cm
  120. Center of gravity in children
    Xiphoid process or T12 vertebra
  121. Age at which genu varum is normal
    0-2 years old
  122. Age at which genu valgum is normal
    2-7 years old
  123. Age at which pes planus is normal
    0-18 months
  124. Age at which the head of a child is proportional to his or her trunk
    1 year old
Card Set
Human Growth and Development