1. Arteries
    • elastic
    • muscly
    • thick
    • expands 
    • snaps back (pulse)
  2. Vein
    • thin
    • non-elastic
    • cannot contract to move blood
    • surrounded by skeletal muscles to move the blood
    • have one way valves to prevent blood from going backwards
    • regulated by heart pressure
  3. Capillaries
    • exchange gases, nutrients, pretty much everything
    • one cell thick
    • no epithelial or endothelial layer
    • blood flow is extremely slow to allow for diffusion of nutrients
  4. Vasoconstriction
    • reducing the amount of blood in an area
    • controlled by nervous system signals originating from brain
  5. Vasodilation
    • increasing the amount of blood in an area
    • controlled by nervous system signals originating from brain
  6. Homeostasis
    • "normal state"
    • normal diameter of arteries
    • vasodilation and vasoconstriction at the same time
  7. Atrium
    • two top chambers
    • fill with blood returning to heart
    • first place where returning blood goes
  8. Ventricles
    • bottom two chambers
    • receive blood from atria
    • send blood away from heart
  9. Septum
    • thick muscular wall
    • divides heart into two parts vertically
  10. Atrioventricular valves
    • two one-way valves in heart
    • separate atria from ventricles
  11. Tricuspid valve
    • on the right side
    • separates right atrium, ventricle
    • has 3 flaps
  12. Bicuspid valve
    • also called "mitral valve"
    • on the left side
    • separates left atrium, ventricle
    • has 2 flaps
  13. Semilunar valves
    two one-way valves in heart
  14. Pulmonary valve
    separating right ventricle from pulmonary arteries
  15. Aortic valve
    separating left ventricle from aorta
  16. Right side of heart
    • EXCLUSIVELY deoxygenated blood
    • will go to the lungs to get oxygen
  17. Left side of heart
    • EXCLUSIVELY oxygenated blood
    • will travel throughout the body
  18. Superior, inferior vena cava
    • where oxygen-poor blood enters into right atrium
    • superior takes blood from top half of body
    • inferior takes blood from lower half of body
  19. Pulmonary arteries
    brings deoxygenated blood toward the blood
  20. Pulmonary veins
    where oxygen-rich blood enters the left atrium
  21. "Pulmonary"
    associated with lungs
  22. Stages of blood travel in RIGHT SIDE of heart
    • 1. blood moves in through superior, inferior vena cava into the atrium
    • 2. atrium contracts, blood moves via tricuspid valve
    • 3. ventricle contracts, blood moves to pulmonary artery via pulmonary valve
    • 4. blood goes to lungs to get oxygen
  23. Stages of blood travel in LEFT SIDE of heart
    • 1. blood moves in through pulmonary vein into the atrium
    • 2. blood moves to left ventricle via bicuspid valve (aorta contracts)
    • 3. blood moves to aorta via aortic valve (ventricle contracts)
    • 4. oxygenated blood disperses through body
  24. Pulmonary pathway
    • blood going toward lungs
    • exits through right ventricle
    • enters through left atrium
  25. Systemic pathway
    • blood dispersing throughout body
    • exits through left ventricle
    • enters through right atrium
  26. Coronary pathway
    dedicating to providing blood to the muscle tissues of the heart itself via the right and left coronary arteries
  27. Aorta
    • main artery that transports oxygenated blood throughout the body
    • ALL blood goes through the aorta
  28. SA node
    • Sinoatrial node
    • controls heartbeat
    • stimulates heart muscle cells to contract and relax rhythmically 
    • makes left, right atria contract simultaneously
    • this is the stimulus that stimulates the heartbeat
    • the heartbeat's electrical signals are sent from within the heart itself
  29. AV node
    • atrioventricular node
    • as the atria contract, the electrical signal passes to AV node to the bundle of His (specialized fibre group)
    • reaches Purkinje fibres, which initiates almost simultaneous contraction of right/left ventricle
  30. ECG
    • electrocardiogram
    • measures change in voltage produced by electrical signal from SA node
  31. P wave
    atria contracting
  32. Q wave
    atria relaxing
  33. R wave
    ventricle contracting
  34. T wave
    ventricle relaxing
  35. S wave
  36. Blood pressure
    • systolic pressure: contraction, highest blood pressure
    • diastolic pressure: relaxing, lowest blood pressure
  37. Systole
    • filled ventricles contracting
    • shuts AV valves
    • opens semilunar valves, pushing blood into pulmonary arteries/aorta
    • "lubb"
    • loudest sound
  38. Diastole
    • ventricles relaxing
    • atria contracting
    • "dubb"
  39. Sound of heart
    valves shutting, opening
  40. Sphygmomanometer
    • blood pressure cuff
    • measures blood pressure in millimetres of mercury (mmHg)
    • systolic pressure/diastolic pressure
    • normal blood pressure is 120/80
    • somewhat low blood pressure is normal
  41. Why does salt increase blood pressure?
    • salt levels in blood increase
    • water levels in blood increase as a result
  42. Arteriosclerosis
    • arterial walls thicken
    • backflow occurs
  43. Atherosclerosis
    • type of arteriosclerosis
    • LDL fills in arteries
    • pressure increases
  44. Angina
    blood clot
  45. Stent
    • after an angioplasty
    • prevents blood vessel from collapsing
  46. Coronary bypass operation
    grafting another artery/vein to bypass the blockage
  47. Blood
    two parts: 55% plasma, 45% formed parts
  48. Formed parts in blood
    • red blood cells (44%)
    • platelets, white blood cells (1%)
  49. Plasma
    • watery part of blood
    • where red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets are suspended
  50. Red blood cells
    • erythrocytes
    • sole purpose is to carry oxygen
    • 280 million molecules of iron per cell
    • no nucleus
    • biconcave shape increases surface area for oxygen binding
    • produced in red bone marrow
    • average life span of 120 days
    • higher oxygen levels = brighter red than lower oxygen levels = darker red
  51. Anemia
    • too little oxygen
    • can be caused by sickle cells, iron deficiency, too few RBC, etc
  52. White blood cells
    • leucocytes
    • immune response
    • have a nucleus
    • colourless
    • make up 1% of blood, can double when fighting infection (2%)
  53. Platelets
    • fragments of cells
    • they form when larger cells in bone marrow break apart
    • contain no nucleus, break down quickly
    • blood clotting
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