1. Stages of Respiration
    1. breathing: inspiration (breathing in), expiration (breathing out)

    2. external respiration: transfer of oxygen, carbon dioxide between air, blood; occurs in alveoli

    3. internal respiration: oxygen, carbon dioxide exchange between tissues and blood

    4. cellular respiration: series of ATP releasing chemical reactions, take place inside of cells
  2. Trachea
    air tube supported by cartilage, NO MUSCLE

    mucous, cilia cells
  3. Ciliated cells
    remove gunk and unwanted stuff
  4. Phlegm
    mucous produced by ciliated cells
  5. Right lung/left lung
    3 parts: superior, middle, inferior lobes

    left lung only has 2 lobes: superior, inferior lobes so as to not crush the heart
  6. Pleural membrane
    • connects lungs to thoracic (chest) cavity
    • allows lungs to expand/contract with movement of chest
  7. Bronchi
    2 pathways supported by cartilage, connecting lungs and trachea
  8. Bronchioles
    smaller tubes branching off of bronchi

    muscle lining for contraction
  9. Alveoli
    • tiny sacs
    • one cell thick
    • CO2, O2 exchanged via diffusion
  10. Breathing controlled by
    • diaphragm
    • intercostal muscles (muscles between ribs)
  11. Inhalation
    • diaphragm/intercostal muscles contract
    • rib cage moves upward, diaphragm moves downward
    • thoracic cavity volume increases -> pressure decreases -> air moves into lungs
  12. Exhalation
    diaphragm/intercostal muscles relax
  13. Spirometer/Spirograph
    measures amount of air moving in/out of lungs
  14. Concentration gradient
    • moves carbon dioxide out of capillaries
    • moves oxygen into capillaries
  15. Pneumonia
    alveoli fill with fluid
  16. Pneumothorax
    collapsed lung, air builds up in the space between the two membranes of the pleura 

    caused by a leak in the lungs or a leak in the chest wall
  17. Asthma
    • bronchi/bronchioles imflaming
    • mucous produced
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