Bio 20 - BioChem

  1. Exothermic reactions
    Exothermic chemical reactions realease energy

    Ex.Light, Heat
  2. Endothermic reaction
    Endothermic reactions require external energy for the reaction to proceed
  3. Precursor activity (On switch)
    Enzymes turn on via the initial reactant
  4. Feedback Inhibition (Off switch)
    Enzymes turn off when there is to much of the final product
  5. Allosteric activity
    The regulation of the enzyme and what it is doing
  6. Competitive inhibitors
    Compete with the substrate for the active site by mimicing the substrate
  7. What is an Enzyme affected by?
    • - pH
    • - Substrate/Enzyme concentration
    • - Temp
    • - Competitive inhibitors
  8. CoEnzyme
    Organic molecule

    Helps the Enzyme carry out its requierd task
  9. CoFactors
    Non organic molecules

    Aids the Enzyme in bonding to the substrate
  10. Lock and key model
    Out dated model

    Fit perfectly
  11. Induced fit model
    Enzyme active site molds around the substrate
  12. Substrate (Enzyme)
    Substance changed by the enzyme
  13. Active site (Enzyme)
    Site of reaction
  14. Testing for proteins
    Biuret tests for proteins

    Blue --> Pink --> Purple
  15. How to identify Enzymes
    End in "ASE"

    • Moltose --> Maltase
    • Sucrose --> Sucrase
  16. Testing for Lipids
    Sudan IV tests for Lipids

    Pink --> Red
  17. Test for polysaccharides
    Iodine

    Brown --> Black
  18. Test for monosaccharides
    Blue benidect

    Blue --> orange
  19. Coagulation
    Permenent change in proteins shape

    Ex. boiled egg
  20. Nucleotide
    Building block for DNA and RNA

    Formed by Carb + Protein
  21. Denature
    Alter a proteins shape(function)

    reversable

    Ex. Curling hair
  22. Quaternary
    2 or more poly peptide structures clustered into 1 macromolecule
  23. Tertiary structure
    Irregular contortions form R group bonding
  24. Secondary structure
    Coils and folds

    • Most common:
    • Alpha helix - Pleated sheet
  25. Primary structure (Proteins)
    Linear structure

    (1)--(2)--(3)--(4)--(5)
  26. Essential amino acids
    Body cant produce these (Obtained via diet)
  27. Polypeptides
    Proteins formed from 20 different AA 

    Many combinations
  28. HDL
    High density Lipoprotein

    Good cholesterol (Bring LDL to liver)
  29. LDL
    Low Density Lipoprotein

    Bad cholesterol (clog arteries)
  30. Hydrogenation
    Turns fats/oils into Trans fat (more stable)

    Unsaturated --> Saturated --> Trans
  31. Liposome
    Double layered sphere used to:

    Carry medicine

    Carry DNA cells
  32. Waxes
    Insoluble in water
  33. Phospholipids
    2 Fatty acids attached to a glyceral

    • Tails made from fat (hydrophobic)
    • Heads made from phosphate (Hydrophilic)
  34. Unsaturated fat
    Fat that contains double bonds(Weak)

    Easy to break down
  35. Saturated fat
    All bonds are single bonds(Strong)

    Hard to break down
  36. Triglycerides
    Union of 3 fatty acids

    • Animal --> Fats
    • Plants --> Oils
  37. Polar
    A molecule that has a slight charge based on the formation

    Ex. H2O
  38. Passive transport
    Task that does not require ATP
  39. Active transport
    Use ATP to perform a task
  40. Animal storage
    Energy stored as Glycogen

    Glycogen --> ATP
  41. Plant structure
    • Cellulose¬†
    • -Rigid

    Ex. Cellulose --> Cell wall
  42. Plant storage
    Energy stored as starch

    Starch --> ATP
  43. Hydrolosis
    Using water to break large molecules into smaller ones
  44. Dehydration synthesis
    • Combinine small molecules to create larger ones
    • Water is a byproduct
  45. Isomers
    Chemicals with the exact same molecular makeup but with different physical orientation.

    Ex. Glucose - Fructose
  46. Polysaccharides
    • Many sugar units (Form Rings)
    • Poly = many
    • saccharides = sugar
  47. Disaccharides
    • Polymer of 2 sugar units
    • di = 2
    • Saccharides = sugar
  48. MonoSaccharides
    • 1 sugar
    • mono = 1
    • Saccharides = Sugar

    Ex. Glucose - Fructose
  49. Carbohydrates
    • The main source of energy for the body
    • - Anything unburned is stored as fat
  50. Polymer
    Multiple monomers that have come together to form large chemical compunds

    Poly = many
  51. Monomer
    A single molecule that reacts with other monomers

    Ex. Single lego block

    Mono = 1
  52. ATP
    Primary source of energy for cells
  53. Acid and Base pH
    • Acid (-7) = Red
    • Base (+7) = Blue
  54. Anabolic
    Complex chemicals built from smaller ones
  55. Catabolic
    Large chemical broken down into smaller ones
  56. Metabolism
    • All the chemical reactions in cells
    • - Catabolic
    • - Anabolic
Author
Cosmic5491
ID
355177
Card Set
Bio 20 - BioChem
Description
Biochem - Grade 10
Updated