Bio Chem Human Systems

  1. Dehydration Synthesis
    Removing a water molecule from two monosaccharides to combine them
  2. Catabolic
    Large chemicals broken into smaller ones
  3. Anabolic
    complex chemicals built from smaller ones
  4. Monomer
    A single molecule that can combine with other molecules
  5. Polymer
    Large monomer chemical compounds
  6. Carbohydrates
    • Main energy source that is not burned by fat
    •              - A giant link of sugar molecules
  7. Types of Carbohydrates
    • Monosaccharides: 1 sugar units
    • Disaccharide: polymer of 2 sugar units
    • Polysaccharides: 3+ sugar units
  8. Isomers
    Chemicals with the same formula but use different molecular arrangements
  9. Hydrolysis
    Using water to break a chemical bond
  10. Excess glucose gets converted to what in animals and plants?
    • Glycogen = animals
    • Plants= starch
  11. The difference between glycogen, starch, and cellulose.
    Humans can break down glycogen.

    Humans can break down starch but not as well as glycogen.

    Humans are unable to break down cellulose.
  12. What is a lipid?
    • Non-polar fat
    • comprised of glycerol and fatty acids

    • combined through dehydration synthesis
    • Triglycerides, Phospholipids, waxes, and sterols.
  13. What do lipids do?
    Energy reservoirs 

    A structural material- cell membrane cushion
  14. Triglycerides
    Union of 3 fatty acids:

    Glycerol + 3 fatty acids

    • Animal = Fat (saturated-> strong stable single bonds)
    • Plants = Oils (unsaturated-> weak unstable double bonds
  15. Phospholipids
    Union of 2 fatty acids:

    Glycerol + 2 fatty acids = Phosphate

  16. Liposome
    • Double layered sphere used to:
    • - carry drugs throughout the body
    • - Gene therapy-> introduce new DNA to cells

  17. Hydrogenation
    turns oil into more stable trans fat
  18. LDL (low-density lipoprotein)
    • Bad cholestorol
    • - sticks to arteries
  19. HDL (high-density lipoprotein)
    • Good cholestorol
    • - carries LDL to the liver to get broken down
  20. How are Proteins ( polypeptides) formed?
    8-1000 amino acids joined together through dehydration synthesis.
  21. Polypeptides
    Peptide bonds= joined amino acids

    Poly peptide=lots of amino acids (peptide bonds) chained together
  22. Protein shape: Primary Structure
    - Linear structure

    What AA does it have? + what order are they bonded?
  23. Protein shapes: Secondary structure
    • Difference in hydrogen bonds:
    •   Coils: Alpha helix

      Folds: Pleated sheet
  24. Protein shapes: Tertiary Structure
    Irregular contortions from R-group bonding
  25. Protein shapes: Quaternary structure
    • 2 or more polypeptide structures aggregated into 1 macromolecule.
    • TD;LR multiple proteins bonded together
  26. Protein problems
    • ->excess heat
    • ->radiation
    • ->pH change
    • (causes denature and coagulation)
  27. Denature
    Alters the shapes function but can resume original state
  28. Coagulation
    Permanent change in a proteins shape
  29. Deoxyribonucleic Acid
    • DNA- Double stranded
    • Carbs + protein + fat = DNA
  30. Ribonucleic Acid
    RNA- Single stranded
  31. Nucleic Acid
    Protein(nitrogen) + carb (sugar)
  32. Testing Carbohydrates
    Simple sugar (monosaccharides): benedicts reagent; positive test is orange-red

    Starch Complex sugar (polysaccharides): Iodine; positive test is Brown
  33. Testing Lipids
    • translucent test: see-through paper
    • Sudan: soluble in fats; positive test is pink to red
  34. Testing proteins
    • Biuret test: reacts with peptide bonds, the more bonds the more darker the colour.
    •    Positive test: blue->pink->purple
  35. Metabolism
    • chemical reactions in cells
    • - Catabolic
    • - Anabolic
Card Set
Bio Chem Human Systems
ahhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh science *thumbs up*