N165 Quiz 1

  1. gyrus
    a "ridge' of cerebral cortex
  2. Sulcus
    a ‘valley’ of cerebral cortex
  3. Cortical sheet
    • the outer, surface covering of cerebral cortex, composed of gray
    • matter (neuron cell bodies)
  4. Cerebral cortex
    • the large, folded part of the brain that sits above the
    • cerebellum and brainstem, made up of gray and white matter
  5. Cerebellum
    • (Latin for "little brain") the small, highly ridged portion
    • of brain that sits inferior to the cerebral cortex and posterior to the brainstem
  6. Anterior
    towards the front of the brain
  7. Posterior
    towards the back of the brain
  8. Superior
    towards the top of the brain
  9. Inferior
    towards the bottom of the brain
  10. Lateral
    • this view of the brain would show the surface of a cerebral
    • hemisphere under the ears
  11. Medial
    • this view of the brain would be the inner surface of a cerebral
    • hemisphere
  12. Dorsal
    • towards the top of the brain (towards the back surface of the body in the
    • brainstem & spinal cord)
  13. Ventral
    • towards the bottom of the brain (towards belly surface of the body in
    • the brainstem & spinal cord)
  14. Rostral
    • towards the front of the brain (towards the top surface of the body in the
    • brainstem & spinal cord; rostral means "beak")
  15. Caudal
    • towards the back of the brain (towards the bottom surface of the body in
    • the brainstem & spinal cord; caudal means "tail")
  16. Sagittal
    • a vertical slice of the brain cut down the center, from anterior to
    • posterior, giving a view from left or right
  17. Coronal
    • a vertical slice of the brain cut from superior to inferior, giving a view
    • from the front or back of the brain
  18. Axial
    • a horizontal slice of the brain cut from left to right, giving a view from the
    • top or bottom of the brain
  19. Central nervous system (CNS)
    composed of the brain and spinal cord
  20. Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    • composed of peripheral nerves that connect
    • the CNS to the limbs, trunk, and internal organs
  21. Autonomous nervous system (ANS)
    • a subdivision of the PNS that controls
    • visceral functions; includes parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems
  22. Cranial nerves
    • a set of 12 specialized nerves that act as the PNS (motor control
    • and sensory info) to the head and neck
  23. Meninges
    the three protective layers of tissue between the brain and the skull
  24. Dura mater
    the durable, leathery outer protective layer of the meninges
  25. Arachnoid mater
    • the spider web-like middle protective layer of the meninges
    • that is filled with cerebral spinal fluid
  26. Pia mater
    the thin, shiny, inner protective layer of the meninges that "shrinkwraps" the brain
  27. Frontal lobe
    • the anterior portion of cerebral cortex, involved in emotion,
    • cognition, and executive control
  28. Parietal lobe
    • the superior posterior portion of cerebral cortex,
    • superior to the occipital and temporal lobes, posterior to the frontal lobe
  29. Temporal lobe
    • the inferior portion of cerebral cortex, anterior to the occipital
    • lobe and inferior to the others
  30. Occipital lobe
    • the posterior portion of cerebral cortex, primarily involved in
    • vision processing
  31. Central sulcus
    • the sulcus dividing the frontal and parietal lobes, surrounded on
    • each side by motor and sensory cortex
  32. Lateral fissure
    • the gap that divides the temporal from the frontal and parietal
    • lobes; a fissure is another name for a large sulcus
  33. Parieto-occipital sulcus
    the sulcus that divides the parietal and occipital lobes
  34. Pre-occipital notch
    • the notch that serves as the bottom point of the imaginary
    • dividing line between the temporal and occipital lobes; the top of the parietooccipital sulcus is the top point
  35. Brodmann’s Areas
    • ~50 cytoarchitectural areas defined by neuroanatomist
    • Brodmann according to cell size, cell density, number and thickness of cortical
    • layers, and density of myelinated axons; numbering system is becoming less
    • common as neuroimaging measurements take over tissue histology
  36. Gray matter
    • outer ‘bark’ of the cerebral cortex composed of neuronal cell
    • bodies; this is where computations happen; much of cortex consists of six layers
  37. White matter
    • inner region of cerebral cortex composed of the axons of the
    • neurons with cell bodies in the gray matter; can be thought of as the ‘wiring’
    • connecting different regions of gray matter
  38. Neuron
    • the basic cell in the brain that processes and transmits information in the
    • form of electrical and chemical signals
  39. Dendrite
    • the branched portion of a neuron which receives inputs from synapses
    • with other cells and sends small depolarizations towards the cell body
  40. Cell body
    • the "main" portion of a cell that contains the nucleus, mitochondria,
    • and other organelles necessary for the cell to survive
  41. Axon hillock
    • the base of the axon, where it meets the cell body of the neuron;
    • action potentials are initiated here
  42. Axon
    • the long cell structure that carries depolarizations (action potentials) away
    • from the cell body of a neuron to the synapse
  43. Node of Ranvier
    • the small gaps between myelin sheaths in myelinated axons
    • involved in fast action potential propagation down the axon
  44. Synapse
    the region/space which information flows across from one neuron to another neuron; space between neurons can be called the synaptic cleft
  45. Axon Terminal
    the very end of a branch of a neuron's axon, specialized to release neurotransmitters from vesicles into the synapse in response to an action potential.
  46. Glial cell
    • surround neurons in CNS and PNS and provide myelination as well as other support for them; most abundant cell types in CNS. 
    • types differ between CNS and PNS
    • CNS: oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, microglia
    • PNS: satellite cells, Schwann cells
  47. Myelin sheath
    a layer of protective tissue wrapped around axons of neurons to hasten the transmission of action potentials
  48. Neuronal communication includes
    electrical conduction (action potential) along the axon and chemical transmission via neurotransmitter release at the synapse
  49. Corpus callosum
    the main connection of white matter that is integral for communication between the two cerebral hemispheres
Card Set
N165 Quiz 1
Unit 1a