1. What is the basic unit of the skeletal muscle?
    A sacramere
  2. What two muscles does it make up?
    cardiac and skeletal
  3. Which muscle part controls voluntary movements?
    skeletal muscle
  4. What is a sacramere made up of?
    A thin and thick filament
  5. What does a thin filament consist of?
    A globular protein called actin, two actin come together and form a helical shape with two other proteins
  6. What does a thick filament consist of?
    A protein called myosin
  7. What does the H zone only contain?
    The region of the sacramere that  only contains the thick filament
  8. What do you call the ends the thick filament?
    Myosin heads
  9. What does the I bond contain?
    Only contains the thin filament
  10. What proteins also play a role in contraction?
    tropinin and tropparamyosin
  11. What is skeletal muscle positioned next to?
    Blood vessels and lymphnodes
  12. What does it contract and release? muscle
    It increases the flow of blood and lymph fluid
  13. When it is cold what part of the brain induces shivering and why?
    • The hypothalamus
    • To stimulate the skeletal muscle to contract and warm the body
  14. What is a myofibril?
    Many sacrameres connected end to end to form a long fiber
  15. What do you call the cytoplasm of the muscle cell?
    A sacroplasm
  16. What do you call the cell membrane?
  17. Where do you find the myofibrils?
    In the cytoplasm
  18. How do muscle cells grow?
    When they contract
  19. Which systems does the muscle system link with? (3)
    Nervous, cardiovascular and integumentary
  20. What is shivering?-
    uncoordinated contraction of muscle fibers resulting in shaking and heat production
  21. What force does the skeletal muscle provide?
    the force to lift or depress the rib cage producing a change in the thoracic volume
  22. What do the scalenes and pectoralis minor muscles do?-
    lift up the rib cage
  23. What do the external abdominal oblique and rectus do-
    pull the rib cage down
  24. What is sarcopenia-muscle atrophy
    • (loss of muscle mass
    • --reduced muscle mass, increased recovery time, decreased stamina
  25. What year does it start? sarcopenia
  26. Where do you find smooth muscle-
    throughout the body surrounds the organs
  27. Features of smooth muscle?-
    not striated, spindle-shaped, more actin, slower contraction
  28. What nervous system controls smooth muscle?
    The automatic nervous system, involuntary.
  29. What can control it?- smooth m
  30. Where is a cardiac muscle found?
    In the heart
  31. What is the function of cardiac muscle?
    Contraction of the heart
  32. What are the features of cardiac muscle?
    striated, branching gap junctions, auto rhythmic and involuntary control, action potentials of longer durations and refractory period
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