What is Oxytocin
Oxytocin stimulates ejection of milk from nipples and contractions of the uterus during childbirth
Prolactin stimulates the secretion of milk by the mammary glands after giving birth
What is inhibin?
A hormone produced in testes, acts to regulate FSH levels in a negative feedback loop
What is Gondotrophins GnRH?
A sex hormone,
Responisble for primary sex characteristics
Secreted by the hypothalamus, it regulates the pituitary glands secretion of gonad stimulating hormones
What is Oestrogen?
Female sex hormone
Responsible for primary and secondary sex characteristics
What are endocrine glands?
Glands that release hormones directly into the blood stream
What are Androgens?
- Collective term for male hormones
- E.g. Testosterone
Specific body part or structure
What are 3 things involved in the sexual cycle?
Human sexual response
What is a structure?
Consists of 2 structures (reproductive and sexual)
Penis and vagina have both
What are reproductive structures?
- Parts of the body that are directly or indirectly involved with reproduction
- Eg. Vans deferens
What are sexual structures?
- Parts of the body that are directly involved with sexual response without having a clear reproductive function
- E.g. The clitoris
What is testosterone?
- A sex hormone that stimulates male’s secondary Sex characteristics
- It is produced mainly in testes (some in ovaries)
what are secondary sex characteristic’s?
- Parts of the body that are indirectly involved in sexual reproduction
- eg. Pubic hair and breast development
What is progesterone
- Is the sex hormone in males and post- pubertal females
- It is responsible for certain Primary characteristic’s e.g. The uterine wall tone
What are primary sex characteristics?
- Parts of the body that are directly involved with sexual reproduction and functioning
- E.g penis and uterus
What is the pituitary gland and what does it do
It is a pea sized structure,n' the brain that controls growth and development, it releases hormones for sperm and egg development and is known as the 'master' endocrine gland
What is the study of physiology
It is biology that studies normal functioning of living organisms and their parts
What is Luteinizing hormone? LH and where does it come from
LH is secreted from the pituitary glands it regulates oestrogen secretion and ovum development in females and testosterone in males
What is FSH? And what is its function?
- Follicle stimulating hormone
- It is secreted by the pituitary gland and it stimulates follicle development in females and sperm in males
What are follicles?
They are small sacs of fluid found on the outer layer of the ovaries and contain immature eggs
There are 7 stages in the reproductive cycle, what are they?
- 1. Puberty
- 2. Fertility
- 3. Conception
- 4. Pregnancy
- 5. Birth
- 6. Lactation
- 7. Menopause
What are the 3 sex hormones?
- 1. Testosterone
- 2. Oestrogen
- 3. Progesterone
I like being on T.O.P
What are hormones?
Hormones are chemical substances released by different endocrine glands that affect anatomical development and functioning these are secreted directly into the blood stream
What is analogous?
When something is similar in function but different in structure
What is homologous?
Structures formed from similar embryonic tissue e.g. Ovaries/testes
What is the h-p-g axis
Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonad axis, it monitors biochemical aspects of sexuality
What are gonads
- Ovaries in females
- Testes in males
What is homeostasis?
When the body is in a constant state, nothing is going wrong
How do negative and positive feedback loops assist or hinder homeostasis
- Negative feed back loops always want to reverse a change (temperature, sickness)
- Positive feedback loops reinforce, promote and continue change, this happens rarely eg. Pregnancy
Explain the male sex hormone system
- The pituitary gland and testes both produce hormones these include: Testosterone, LH and FSH
- Testosterone has multiple functions, it stimulates and maintains secondary sex characteristics, maintains genital and sperm production and stimulates growth of bone and muscle
- LH & FSH affect the function of the testes - FSH controls the sperm production and LH controls testosterone production
- On a whole testosterone levels are kept constant by the hypothalamus, pituitary and testes in a negative feed back loop
What is the pituitary gland and where is it located
- It is a pea-sized gland located in the lower part of the brain between the ears, is it spilt into 2 lobes (anterior and posterior)
- It's been called the 'master' gland as its in control of growth and development as well as sperm and egg development
- The anterior lobe interacts with the gonads ( ovaries and testes)
What is the hypothalamus and where is it located
- It is in the region of the brain above the pituitary gland, it controls the whole nervous system as well as regulating the pituitary gland
- The hypothalamus, pituitary and gonads are function together to control the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, puberty and sexual behaviour