Koerner Review BRXB

  1. Electric appliances and devices are designed to operate at a particular voltage
    rated voltage
  2. True/False

    On televisions, low voltage can cause fuzzy pictures and a decrease in picture size. High voltage can shorten the life of electronic equipment.
  3. Low voltage causes a decrease in incandescent lamp efficiency. A
               decrease in voltage results in a                decrease in illumination output.
    10%, 30%
  4. Two major benefits to the Power System in maintaining a
    regulated voltage supply to our customers
    customer satisfaction, efficiency
  5. The                 is the point on a feeder where the circuit branches out into various primary circuits
    load center
  6. The decrease in voltage on an electric circuit
    between the source (distributing station) and the load (the load center).
    voltage drop
  7. Ways to deal with voltage drop
    • Shortening the length of the feeder
    • Reducing feeder load
    • Compensating for voltage drop
  8. Works on the turns-ratio principle
    Step regulators
  9. Uses the magnetic flux principle
    Induction regulators
  10. True/False

    By limiting the range of regulation to a value less than 10 percent,  only a portion of the secondary winding is in the load circuit. Losses and heating are reduced, so the current carrying capacity of the regulator can be increased.
  11. When an autotransformer is used to step up the voltage, part of the single winding acts as the          , and the entire winding acts as the         
    primary, secondary
  12. When an autotransformer is used to step down the voltage, the entire winding acts as the             , and part of the winding acts as the              
    primary, secondary
  13. The             calculates the necessary change in the
    voltage by simulating the voltage drop in the feeder between the
    regulator and the load center
    line-drop compensator
  14. On the basis of the information from the line-drop compensator, the               will raise or lower the voltage, provided that time and bandwidth requirements are met
    contact-making voltmeter (CMV or CMVM)
  15. There are two types of line-drop compensators
    balance beam and electronic.
  16. True/False

    The basic bandwidth used by the DWP is 2 volts. This "bandwidth" prevents the voltage regulator from responding to minor changes in voltage. Such a response is referred to as "hunting"
  17. In Step Type Regulators, this changes the percentage of regulation
    limit switches
  18. Less percentage of regulation allows more load to be carried
    "Load bonus" feature
  19. Limit switches adjustments are made by who....
    Power Quality group of Power Transmission and Distribution.
  20. True/False

    Voltage regulators set for 10 percent regulation will maintain the voltage within a zone of 10 percent above nominal voltage and 10 percent below nominal voltage
  21. The oil in Voltage Regulators serves two purposes
    cooling and insulating
  22. True/False

    Regulators use convection to circulate oil in the cooling fins. If the oil level is below the top opening on the fins, there will be NO oil circulation.
  23. True/False

    The Transfer Bus is the common point for feeders and the
    unregulated Transfer Bus Tie
  24. What device prevents the regulator from short circuiting when the finger contact are on two separate contacts with different potential
    preventative autotransformer
  25. In Induction Regulators, the moveable coils are called the         
  26. True/False

    The rotor is also referred to as the primary or input winding
  27. True/False

    In Induction Regulators, the stationary coil is the stator, which is also called the secondary or output winding
  28. Induction regulators work on the principle of           voltage
  29. When the rotor is              to the stator, it cannot induce any voltage in the stator
  30. The maximum voltage change occurs when the rotor is          to the stator.
  31. True/False

    The secondary winding is also called the stator because it is
  32. When the rotor is in the direction of the source voltage, the voltage is               .
  33. The                 controls reactance caused at or near neutral by effectively short-circuiting the stator
    short-circuit winding
  34. There are two major reasons why voltage regulators may need to be placed on neutral.
    • To prevent circulating current
    • to match voltage when making or breaking parallel
  35. The             controls reactance caused at or near neutral by effectively short-circuiting the stator
    short-circuit winding
  36. Most regulators are                , meaning that the regulator
    power supply is also the power supply to the regulator voltmeter
  37. Short circuit current is greatest in a regulator that is            
    one step off neutral
  38. True/False

    Short circuit current decreases as the regulator approaches
    full boost or full buck
  39. At one step off neutral, there is the least amount of             in the secondary
  40. True/False

    Short-circuits and open-circuits within the regulator may cause an explosion
  41. What are the to options to employ if a regulator becomes excessively overloaded:
    • The feeder should be placed on the Transfer Bus unregulated
    • blocking the regulators on neutral
  42. Regulators that are continually adjusting the voltage are said to be                
  43. Regulators may hunt due to faulty
    • Contact making voltmeter
    • Time delay
    • Bandwidth setting
  44. True/False

    A "hunting" regulator may cause the motor circuit to trip or fuses to be blown.
  45. Removing the inner parts of a step regulator is referred to
    untanking a regulator
  46. Cutting the regulators flat allows the feeder to be supplied through the feeder position                
  47.              permits the performance of specified work on specified circuits
    Work Authority
  48. A                 on any circuit requires that it be Disconnected from specified sources of hazardous energy (usually electrical), and remain Disconnected until the                 is released,
    or turned in
    Clearance, Clearance
  49.                  , when used to describe the preparation of electrical circuits for a Work Authority, means that an open, usually one that is visible, exists between specified sources of electrical energy and the circuit that is being prepared for work
  50. Any time a device is used to Disconnect a circuit for a Work Authority, an                  must be applied
    Accident Prevention Tag (APT
  51. True/False

    A Clearance is required when it is necessary to enter within the MAD of a circuit that is normally energized above 600-V.
  52. In order to create a Clearance, the circuit must be                                     , and have                applied to the points of disconnection
    de-energized, Disconnected, APTs
  53. When working on one circuit that is close enough to another to
    potentially breach the MAD of the second circuit
    Clearance is said to be for work in proximity
  54. These Clearances are either issued to a Field Representative, a Facility Field Representative, or directly to an Authorized Person performing work
    Primary Clearance
  55. Multiple                     may be issued to different Authorized Persons based on the original                  , so long as the nature of the work and the time to complete the work fits within the scope and time frame of the Primary Clearance
    Secondary Clearances, Primary Clearance
  56.                  may be issued in the following circumstances
    On Local Equipment under Local Jurisdiction
    • Circuits operating at 600-V and below
    • Contained within one Electric Station
    • Not otherwise designated as System Equipment
    • On pieces of System Equipment on which a Switch, Work,         and Restore (SWR) has been issued
    Local Clearance
  57. True/False

    When work is planned to take more than one day, the Work Authority Holder will return their Secondary Clearance at the end of each work day
  58. What is the process when the holder of a Clearance has to leave the station while work is in progress
    • 1. The new Authorized Person is shown the limits of the Clearance and the work area hazards.
    • 2. A second Secondary Clearance is issued to the new Authorized Person.
    • 3. The Operator witnesses and documents as the original Work Authority Holder transfers the jurisdiction (or ownership) of their TPGs to the new Work Authority Holder.
    • 4. The original Work Authority Holder turns in their Secondary Clearance.
  59. additional Authorized Persons may not perform additional work under the existing Secondary Clearance unless it:
    • Will be coordinated and supervised by the Work Authority Holder
    • Does not interfere with any existing Work Authorities
    • Fits within the scope of the original Primary and Secondary Clearances
    • If it does not, the existing Clearances may be amended to include the additional work
  60. The key word to look for when using this type of “large,” or Boundary Clearance, is                  
  61. True/False

    There is no policy as to how many pieces of equipment may be included in a Boundary Clearance, so clear communications between the Load Dispatcher, Operator, and Work Authority Holder are vital
  62. Authorized Person holding a Clearance from the Load Dispatcher on a Line or Cable may perform work within an Electric Station on the potheads or insulators of that circuit
    without an additional Clearance from the station on that circuit when
    • The Operator verifies with the Load Dispatcher that the Work Authority Holder is holding a Clearance on the circuit in question and the work they wish to perform in the station is within the scope of work of their Clearance
    • The Operator discusses the work with the Work Authority Holder and explains to them the hazards of nearby station equipment
    • The Operator shall determine if any additional Work Authorities are required for the safety of the personnel performing the work, such as additional Clearances for work in proximity
  63. A permanent record of all operations and conditions that have any
    bearing on the operation of a Substation
  64. Form 815 -- a record of equipment changes and maintenance
    Foreman's Report
  65. True/False

    The general rules for logging information are fairly simple, the information needs to be accurate, clear, and complete.
  66. True/False

    All CLEARANCE stamps are used at the beginning of the log entry
  67. True/False

    The Clearance in the field stamp is used to record information received from the Load Dispatcher that a Clearance has been issued on a circuit and work is being done at a remote location
  68. True/False

    The boxes on a Clearance in the Field stamp are used to record the number of such Clearances in the field that exist simultaneously on the same circuit.
  69. True/False

    It is not possible for a Clearance in the field and a station Clearance to exist on the same circuit at the same time.
  70. True/False

    The Local stamp is also used for work performed when the Load Dispatcher has transferred jurisdiction to the station
  71. GROUND SWITCH LOCKED CLOSED is followed by
    • Name of circuit
    • APT( )
    • Applied by
    • Requested by
  72. When a Ground Switch is opened, the GROUND SWITCH LOCKED CLOSED must be                    
    canceled with a cancel stamp
  73. Whenever a portable ground is installed in a station, the placement of the portable ground needs to be                  
  74. The PORTABLE GROUND ON stamp is followed by
    • circuit/equipment
    • location
    • APT ( )
    • person who applied
    • person who witnessed
  75. Electrical Trouble Dispatcher handles the following....
    • Conducting 4.8kV Ground Searches
    • Handling Substation Voltage Complaints
    • Reporting Field Hazards
    • Reporting Delayed Feeder Relays Data
    • Medical, Fire and Police Emergencies
  76. Transfer a Call
    • Transfer Key
    • phone number
    • Transfer Key
  77. Medical, Fire and Police emergencies are reported to the Electric
    Trouble Board at what extension
  78. True/False

    In 900 MHz Radio communication, SSO has been assigned Power 1 (Mode 67) channel
  79. A declaration made by the Load Dispatcher or Electric Trouble Dispatcher that the involved circuit, circuit component, or equipment has been Disconnected and/or Isolated from specified sources of energy and will remain so Disconnected and/or Isolated
    Out of Service
  80. IS
    – 34.5kv Customer Station – (12kv, 13.8kv, 16kv)
  81. Who would an operator need to communicate with
    • ACO
    • Load Dispatchers
    • Electrical Trouble Dispatcher
    • Other operators
  82. True/False

    APTs may be attached to an energized
    or dangerous device or equipment
  83. Systems and components covered by this order shall include, but are not limited to, the following
    • Electrical equipment and circuits designed for operation in excess of 50 volts.
    • Vessels, piping, and other equipment designed for operation in excess of 15 psig or 130'F (54.4OC) or to contain hazardous substances
    • Aqueducts, penstocks, tanks, and other related hydraulic equipment and structures.
    • Additional systems and components as determined by the facility superintendent.
  84. True/False

    All switching, valving, or other isolating action and
    preparation orders for work activities issued by the
    Load Dispatcher or Designated Local Dispatcher shall
    include orders to apply tags.
  85. True/False

    Tag numbers for circuits and equipment requiring tagging in more than one jurisdiction shall be provided by the Load Dispatcher.
  86. True/False

    Journey-level craft worker tags in Substations, on equipment such as OUT OF SERVICE potheads, shall be attached by Operators
  87. True/False

    More than one tag may NOT be attached to common boundary
    devices of different systems or components being isolated or prepared for other work under a different CLEARANCE or OK TO
  88. True/False

    APTs shall be applied immediately after switching, valving, or other isolating or preparation actions, and before any
  89. Each subsequent lock applied to a                shall have an additional tag applied bearing a different tag number
    ground switch
  90. True/False

    Locks used in lieu of grounds on 34.5-kV cables at Customer
    Stations shall be tagged as though they are on grounds.
  91. True/False

    In regards to portable grounds, In facilities where a Designated Local Dispatcher is not responsible, journey-level craft workers shall issue tag numbers and control the tags.
  92. True/False

    In regards to missing APTs, Work involving the affected system or component shall be immediately stopped until effective accident prevention tagging can be reestablished. The tag may
    not be replaced until the proper location for I
    reattaching the tag has been verified.
  93. True/False

    The Designated Local Dispatcher may direct any Authorized Person to remove such tags
  94. True/False

    Designated Local Dispatchers may NOT remove tags from a disconnect that is the adjoining point for two CLEARANCES for the purpose of projecting a ground.
    False - with their supervisor's and the Load Dispatcher's prior approval
  95. True/False

    Ground switch repair work may be done by substituting a portable ground and transferring the tag from the ground switch to the portable ground, with the knowledge and approval of involved CLEARANCE holder
  96. True/False

    DO NOT OPERATE tags shall be used for CLEARANCE, OUT OF SERVICE, and as appropriate, OK TO _____ tagging applications
  97. True/False

    CAUTION tags shall be used for OK TO _____ EMERGENCY USE ONLY, and as appropriate, CLEARANCE tagging applications
  98.                 tags shall be used for CLEARANCE, OUT OF SERVICE, construction or installation, and as appropriate, OK TO
    tagging applications.
  99.                 tags shall be used for OK TO WORK HOT with a hold in case of relay and OK TO _____ Parallel and Separate Feeders tagging applications
  100. True/False

    An OK TO WORK HOT--without a hold in case of relay--does not require any tags.
  101. Tags having the lower portion printed with "THIS QUIPMENT/SYSTEM IS UNDER THE JURISDICTION
    OF CONSTRUCTION" on a              shall be used for systems or components under the jurisdiction of the Construction Manager
    green background
  102. Tags having the lower portion printed with
    OF TEST & START-UP" on a              shall be used for systems or components under the jurisdiction of the Test and Start-up Manager
    tan background
  103. Tags having the lower portion printed with "SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS" on               a shall be used for systems or components under the jurisdiction of the operating agent
    white background
  104. What are the four different yellow blocking caps
    • Bank In Service
    • Bus Tie In Service
    • Bus Tie
    • Supply For Remote Section
  105. What blocking cap is used for Bus Tie switching at receiving stations.
    Bus Tie In Service
  106.                  cap is used in receiving stations when a bus section is supplied from a bank in another section through a Bus Tie.
    The Supply for Remote Section
  107. True/False

    On a control board, the Supply For Remote Section cap is placed over the Bank In Service cap of the CB for the bank supplying the “remote section”
  108. True/False

    Orange blocking caps are also (in addition to open CBs) placed on CB control handles when work is being done on the CB or associated circuit whether the CB is open or closed
  109. White Blocking Caps are used on normally open line CBs that are
    System Ties
  110. True/False

    Blue Blocking Caps are used on the CB control handles adjacent to positions where frequent switching is being performed. The intent is to prevent the accidental operation of
    the wrong CB.
  111. The purpose of                  an  is to keep all objects in the work area at the same                  , generally 0-V
    EPZ, electrical potential
  112. What are two potential hazards that still exist once the circuit/equipment is grounded
    • The hazard of the circuit becoming energized accidentally or unintentionally
    • The hazard of the circuit being energized through induction
  113. Low-resistance devices designed to:

    Cause immediate operation of protective devices (relays) in case of energization
    Conduct the maximum fault current that could flow for the time necessary to clear the fault
    Temporary Protective Grounds
  114. A set of gang operated disconnects, one side of which is
    connected to the station ground grid.
    ground switch
  115. 3 Types of Protective Grounds
    • Ground Switch
    • Rack-In Devices
    • Portable Grounds - Stingers/Ground Cables
  116. True/False

    If subsequent grounding requests are made by other Work Authority Holders on the same circuit, the original ground may be utilized. The subsequent requests will be accommodated by
    placing an additional APT (with a new number) on the grounds and, in the case of ground switches, an additional lock
  117. True/False

    A Work Authority Holder may turn in their Secondary Clearance with grounds still on the circuit. They must clearly state the status of the circuit and grounds when clearing off.
  118. True/False

    A witness is required when operating a ground switch
  119. True/False

    If the ground switch is closed at the request of a Work Authority Holder, it is to be closed in the presence of that person
  120. Ground Switch repair:

    If the ground switch was closed on orders from the Load Dispatcher, an                 substitute portable grounds must be issued by the Load Dispatcher before the ground switch may be opened
    OK TO
  121. A procedure used when a circuit must be grounded for work and applying portable grounds directly to it would be impossible or unduly hazardous.
    Projecting a ground
  122. Requests for CLEARANCES and OKs TO needed for work
    within an unattended station are made to the          having jurisdiction over the station
    Area Scheduler
  123. True/False

    Electric Station Operator, may place a station on local
    control and perform necessary switching without first contacting the Load Dispatcher - Emergency Switching
  124. When the system frequency is between 59.1 and 57.2 hertz, automatic under frequency                 occurs
    load shedding
  125. True/False

    During emergency situations, it may be necessary to limit a Type 1 inspection, even further, to include only that equipment that is directly involved in the emergency, and its solution.
  126. Best way to describe a type 1 sta. insp
    To ensure that no abnormal conditions exist in a station that may interfere with equipment about to be operated
  127. Contains information on how chemicals can have adverse effects on the health of workers who over exposed to them
    SDS sheets
  128. The condition of a circuit after the associated automatic reclosing device has tested the circuit a pre-determined number of times and has failed to successfully re-energize the circuit
    Locked out
  129. A declaration made by the Load Dispatcher or Electric Trouble Dispatcher that the involved circuit, circuit component, or equipment has been Disconnected and/or Isolated from specified sources of energy and will remain so Disconnected and/or Isolated
    Out of Service
  130. How to handle gas cylinders
    All compressed gas cylinders shall be stored and used in an up right position, either in a rack or secured by chain
  131.                limited power outages are intentionally caused to isolate these circuits to clear a fault
  132. For applications where current values are relatively small and where fault conditions are not anticipated
  133. For applications where current values are great, where conditions other than high current may be necessary to sense abnormal circuit conditions, and where periodic repeated faults may be anticipated
  134. When a fault or short circuit occurs, the                in the circuit increases rapidly
  135. What two design factors affect the point at which a fuse will operate
    • Thickness of the element (wire)
    • Material used
  136. Pros and Cons of Fuses
    • Reliable and inexpensive
    • Lack the capability to be selective
  137. True/False

    A fuse is incapable of determining the location of a fault
  138. Pros and Cons of Relays
    • Reusability - ability to re-energize circuit quickly
    • Adjustability - ability to change current value and speed of operation
    • Sensitivity - small adjustment result in large current values
    • Selectivity - ability to determine the location of a fault
  139. Fuse and Relays are designed to limit the dangers posed by fault conditions to               ,                , and                 
    personnel, equipment, electrical service
  140. Governs the technical activities and operations of the Power Services organization
    Operating Orders
  141. Governs the actions of Operators and Load Dispatchers.
    Operating Bulletins
  142. Operating Orders and Operating Bulletins are grouped together in a three-volume set of gold binders
    System Operations Procedures
  143. Governs the activities and operations of Load Dispatchers at the Energy Control Center (ECC).
    Instructions to Load Dispatchers
  144. Governs the activities, and operations of Electric Station
    SIBs - Substation Instructions Bulletins
  145. A person who is a Qualified Person in their current job classification, been trained to safely and competently hold
    Work Authorities, demonstrated their knowledge of policies, practices, and procedures related to Work Authorities
    Authorized Person - Qualified Person
  146. Authorized Persons include
    • Electric Station Operators
    • Line Patrol Mechanics
    • Electric Station Maintenance Mechanics
    • Electrical Testers & System Protection Personnel
    • Design & Construction Mechanics
  147. An Authorized Person who is employed by the Department and designated by their Superintendent to receive and reissue Work Authorities from the Load Dispatcher. They also can
    originate local Work Authorities on circuits and equipment under their jurisdiction
    Field Representative - Employed by the Department
  148. Field Representatives include:
    • Operators 
    • Line Patrol Mechanics
    • Electric Trouble Dispatchers
    • Electric Station Maintenance Electric Mechanics
  149. Employees who have been designated by their Superintendent to have the authority to issue switching and tagging orders, work authorizations, declare systems and components IN and OUT OF SERVICE, and coordinate maintenance activities on systems and components under local
    Designated Local Dispatchers - Operators
  150. All or any part of the activity necessary to keep a station or station equipment in good “running” condition
    running maintenance
  151. All equipment, and associated connections within a station building or enclosure, on a station roof, or attached to any station rack
    station equipment
  152. Is in immediate charge of the personnel of the Area. The ACO is responsible to the Area Operations Manager, and advises Area management of all conditions affecting the operation of the Area.
    The Area Control Operator - ACO
  153. A statement from the Load Dispatchers or their representatives that specified work may be done on or near a specified circuit or equipment without the same necessarily being disconnected or isolated from specified sources of energy
    OK TO
  154. An                is a statement from the Load Dispatcher that work may be done on energized lines or equipment.
  155. True/False

    An OK TO may be issued on equipment in a variety of conditions. The equipment may be either energized or deenergized, pressurized or de pressurized
  156. What station equipment is under local control where an OK TO can be originated
    • All circuits below 600 volts,
    • Local services auxiliaries, hydraulic pipelines, steam boilers and their appurtenant equipment, etc
  157. True/False

    OK TO WORK HOT has been issued on a feeder, no
    subsequently be issued until the Authorized Person holding the OKTO WORK HOT has been notified
  158. A 4.8kV circuit that radially supplies customers
  159. A is the group of equipment that usually includes:
    • 4.8kV Front and Rear Bus disconnects
    • Circuit breaker
    • Set of regulators
    • Feeder Regulator Disconnects
    • Voltmeters, ammeters, current transformers, and other  metering
    Feeder Position
  160. The process of moving the feeder from the feeder position to the Transfer Bus
    transferring a feeder
  161. The group of equipment that includes:
    • Disconnects to the 4.8kV Front and Rear Buses
    • Circuit breaker
    • Conductors
    • Disconnects to the 4.8kV Transfer Bus
    Transfer Bus Tie - TBT
  162. Feeders in a Gas Company style distributing station are normally
    supplied from the                 
    4.8kV Reactor Bus
  163. True/False

    In a Gas Co style station, Feeders can be supplied from
    the 4.8kV Transfer Bus either regulated or unregulated.
  164. There are             for the Transfer Bus, the lamps will light if the Transfer Bus is energized.
    three indication lamps
  165. When switching a Feeder on a Sectionalized Main Bus style station, the electrical test of the Transfer Bus provides proof of two items.
    • No feeder is presently connected to the Transfer Bus.
    • The Transfer Bus has been tested for 4.8kV grounds
  166. Temporary signs that have preprinted instructions and markings and are used to:
    Restrict operation or other action so that personnel and/or    systems and components are protected
    Warn that the tagged system or component is in a condition  for test or maintenance activities
    Indicate if the system or component is under the operating  jurisdiction of an organizational unit other than the operating  agent
    APT - Accident Prevention Tags
Card Set
Koerner Review BRXB
Koerner Review BRXB