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DIagnosis of cancer: histology
1. loss of normal organization
2. too many cells piled up/cellular abnormalities
3. destructive and invasive growth
4. tumor cells in blood and lymph vessels
Diagnosis of cancer: Cytological exam
•High nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio
•Hyperchromasia (too much DNA)
•“Immature” chromatin, nucleoli
•Abnormal mitotic cells
---high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio
--de-differentiation of the cells
--too much DNA
--abnormal mitotic cell
Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization: molecular probes used to identify specific chromosomes and specific chromosome regions. They can detect chromosomal translocationa and gene amplification.
riskiness of PSA screening
70% sensitivity, and 85% specificity
thus, there are a lot of false positivies which leads to unnecessary biopsies and surgeries.
it is an insulin regulated receptor that mediates insulin-regulated glucose transport into the cell.
WHen insulin acts on the insulin receptors, there is a signal transduction pathway started from inside the cell that acts on the GLUT4, telling it to take up glucose molecules.
Breakdown of fatty acids
: beta-oxidation of long chain fatty acids
Detoxification of toxic molecules (ethanol)
Synthesis of plasmalogens
How to make sure the peroxisomal enzymes get to their right place?
Targeting signal (PTS1)
: "SKL" ( C-terminus)
: Pex5, located in cytoplasm, binds signal and transports protein to the peroxisomes. Translocator: Translocates enzyme across peroxisomal membrane
Signal peptidase removes the signal sequence
there is a defect in the targeting of peroxisomal enzymes, so you start to notice that your peroxisomes are decreased.