Week 2

  1. DIagnosis of cancer: histology
    • 1. loss of normal organization
    • 2. too many cells piled up/cellular abnormalities
    • 3. destructive and invasive growth
    • 4. tumor cells in blood and lymph vessels
  2. Diagnosis of cancer: Cytological exam

    •High nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio
    •Cellular atypia/de-differentiation
    •Hyperchromasia (too much DNA)
    •“Immature” chromatin, nucleoli
    •Abnormal mitotic cells
    • ---high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio
    • --de-differentiation of the cells
    • --too much DNA
    • --Immature chromatin
    • --abnormal mitotic cell
  3. FISH
    Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization: molecular probes used to identify specific chromosomes and specific chromosome regions. They can detect chromosomal translocationa and gene amplification.
  4. riskiness of PSA screening
    70% sensitivity, and 85% specificity

    thus, there are a lot of false positivies which leads to unnecessary biopsies and surgeries.
  5. GLUT4
    • it is an insulin regulated receptor that mediates insulin-regulated glucose transport into the cell.
    • WHen insulin acts on the insulin receptors, there is a signal transduction pathway started from inside the cell that acts on the GLUT4, telling it to take up glucose molecules.
  6. Peroxisomes
    • Breakdown of fatty acids: beta-oxidation of long chain fatty acids
    • Detoxification of toxic molecules (ethanol)
    • Synthesis of plasmalogens
  7. How to make sure the peroxisomal enzymes get to their right place?
    • Targeting signal (PTS1): "SKL" ( C-terminus)
    • Transport receptor: Pex5, located in cytoplasm, binds signal and transports protein to the peroxisomes. Translocator: Translocates enzyme across peroxisomal membrane
    • Signal peptidase removes the signal sequence
  8. Zellweger syndrome
    there is a defect in the targeting of peroxisomal enzymes, so you start to notice that your peroxisomes are decreased.
Card Set
Week 2
Lecture 14