Equations for chem 111 test 1

  1. Heating solid, liquid, gas
    ΔH= s.h. * g * ΔT
  2. Water boiling
    ΔH= n * ΔHvap
  3. Water melting
    ΔH= n *ΔHfusion
  4. Molality
    m= mol solute/kg solvent
  5. Molarity
    M= n solute/ L solution
  6. Mass percent
    %= mass solute/mass solution * 100
  7. Mole percent
    %= n solute/ n solution * 100
  8. Mole fraction
    X= n solute/ n solution
  9. Vapor pressure lowering (Raoults law for nonvolatile solutions)
    P(solution)= X(solvent) * P(solvent)
  10. Freezing point depression
    ΔT= i * m * kf

    m is molality
  11. Boiling point elevation
    Δbp= i * m * kb
  12. What are the units for kf/kb?
  13. Osmotic pressure
    II= i * M(solute) * RT

    M= molarity 

    R= 0.0821
  14. How does vapor pressure change with increasing temperature?
    It increases
  15. How does viscosity change with increasing temperature?
    It decreases
  16. How does Boiling/melting point change with increasing temperature?
    They both increase
  17. How does surface tension change with increasing IMF?
    It increases, bc it requires a greater amount of energy to break the strong bonds between the molecules
  18. How does vapor pressure change with increasing IMF?
    Vapor pressure decreases with increasing IMF, because the stronger the IMF, the less the molecules want to escape into the vapor phase (also it takes a lot more heat to reach the vapor phase with stronger IMF)
  19. How do boiling/melting point change with increasing IMF?
    Both increase, bc the stronger attraction between the molecules means it takes more energy to break them apart
  20. How does viscosity change with increasing IMF?
    Increases, stronger IMF makes molecules less likely to flow
  21. How are the heats of fusion/vaporization changed with increasing IMF?
    Increase with increasing IMF, takes more energy to separate the bonds between molecules
  22. Cohesion
    Molecules adhesion to each other
  23. Adhesion
    Molecules tendency to attach to something other than themselves
  24. What is the R value in the CC equation?
  25. What is the R value for everything BUT the CC equation?
  26. What is the relationship between gases and temperature in solubility?
    The higher the temperature, lower the solubility
  27. What is the relationship between gases and pressure in solubility?
    The higher the pressure, the more soluble
  28. What is solubility dependent on for solids?
  29. What are the four main colligative properties?
    • Vapor pressure lowering
    • Boiling point elevation
    • Freezing point depression
    • Osmotic pressure
  30. What is osmotic pressure?
    When solvents move from a less concentrated area to a more concentrated area
  31. How does increasing temperature affect surface tension?
    Surface tension decreases
  32. Henry's Law
    Solubility of a gas= kh * Partial pressure

    M= atm/M * atm
Card Set
Equations for chem 111 test 1
Equations and some theory for chem 111 test 1