Biology Ch3

  1. organic compound
    any compound of carbon and another element or a radical
  2. hydrocarbon
    Any of numerous organic compounds, such as benzene, that contain only carbon and hydrogen
  3. isomer
    • Any of two or more compounds, such as lactose and sucrose,composed of the same elements in the same proportions
    • but differing in structure and other properties
  4. functional group
    An atom or group of atoms that replaces hydrogen in an organiccompound
  5. .hydroxylgroup
    the univalent group –OH, as in inorganic compounds, such assodium hydroxide, NaOH, or as in organic compounds, such as ethylalcohol, C 2 H 6 O.
  6. aldehyde group
    the chemical group -CHO
  7. ketone group
    the characteristic group occurring in ketones that consists of the carbonyl group attached to two alkyl groups
  8. carboxyl group
    the monovalent group --COOH, consisting of a carbonyl group bound to a hydroxyl group: the functional group in organic acids
  9. amino group
    An -NH2 group, consisting of a nitrogen atom attached by single bonds to hydrogen atoms, alkyl groups, aryl groups, or a combination of them; also called amino radical phosphate group the group or radical obtained by removal of one or more hydrogen atoms from phosphoric acid
  10. sulfhydryl group
    The univalent radicalgroup, SH, present in many biologically active molecules such as coenzymes and certain proteins
  11. macromolecule
    A large molecule, such as a protein, consisting of many smaller molecules linked together
  12. polymer
    Any of various chemical compounds made of smaller, identical molecules (called monomers) linked together.
  13. monomer
    A molecule that can combine with others of the same kind to form a polymer
  14. hydrolysis reaction
    the process in which water is used to split a substance into smaller particles.
  15. condensation reaction
    two molecules join together to from one single molecule by losing a water molecule.
  16. carbohydrate
    Any of a large class of organic compounds consisting of carbon,hydrogen, and oxygen, usually with twice as many hydrogen atoms as carbon or oxygen atoms
  17. monosaccharide
    Any of a class of carbohydrates that cannot be broken down to simpler sugars by hydrolysis and that constitute the building blocksof oligosaccharides and polysaccharides
  18. simple sugar
  19. pentosesugars
    a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms
  20. ribose
    A pentose sugar with a furanose structure that occurs as acomponent of riboflavin and RNA. Chemical formula: C 5 H 10 O 5
  21. deoxyribose
    The sugar found in the side chains of DNA, differing from ribose in having a hydrogen atom instead of an OH group on one of itscarbon atoms.
  22. hexosesugars
    monosaccharide with six carbon atoms
  23. glucose
    A monosaccharide sugar found in plant and animal tissues.
  24. fructose
    A simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in honey, many fruits, andsome vegetables.
  25. disaccharide
    Any of a class of sugars, including lactose and sucrose, that are composed of two monosaccharides.
  26. glycosidic linkage
    a type of functional group that joins a carbohydrate(sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate
  27. maltose
    A sugar made by the action of various enzymes on starch. It isformed in the body during digestion.
  28. sucrose
    A crystalline sugar found in many plants, especially sugar cane,sugar beets, and sugar maple. It is used widely as a sweetener.Sucrose is a disaccharide composed of fructose and glucose
  29. polysaccharide
    Any of a class of carbohydrates that are made of long chains ofsimple carbohydrates (called monosaccharides).
  30. starch
    A carbohydrate that is the chief form of stored energy in plants, especially wheat, corn, rice, and potatoes.
  31. glycogen
    A polysaccharide stored in animal liver and muscle cells that is easily converted to glucose to meet metabolic energy requirements.
  32. cellulose
    A carbohydrate that is a polymer composed of glucose units and that is the main component of the cell walls of most plants
  33. chitin
    A tough, semi transparent substance that is the main component of the exoskeletons of arthropods, such as the shells of crustaceansand the outer coverings of insects.
  34. Glycoprotein
    Any of a group of cellular macromolecules that are made up of proteins bonded to one or more carbohydrate chains
  35. glycolipid
    a lipid (as a ganglioside or a cerebroside) that contains a carbohydrate radical
  36. lipid
    Any of a large group of organic compounds that are oily to the touch and insoluble in water
  37. triacylglycerol
    A naturally occurring ester of three fatty acids and glycerol that isthe chief constituent of fats and oils.
  38. triglyceride
    Any of a class of organic compounds that are esters consisting of three fatty acids joined to glycerol.
  39. glycerol
    A sweet, syrupy liquid obtained from animal fats and oils or by the fermentation of glucose. It is used as a solvent, sweetener, andantifreeze and in making explosives and soaps.
  40. fatty acid
    Any of a large group of organic acids, especially those found in animal and vegetable fats and oils.
  41. Saturated
    Relating to an organic compound in which all the carbon atoms are joined by single bonds and therefore cannot be combined with any additional atoms or radicals
  42. unsaturated
    Relating to an organic compound in which two or more of thecarbon atoms are joined by a double or triple bond and therefore can be combined with additional atoms or radicals.
  43. phospholipid
    Any of various phosphorus-containing lipids, such as lecithin, that are composed mainly of fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a simple organic molecule such as glycerol amphipathic of or relating to a molecule that possesses both hydrophobic and hydrophilic elements, such as are found in detergents, or phospholipids of biological membranes
  44. carotenoid
    Any of a class of yellow to red pigments found especially in plants,algae, and photosynthetic bacteria isoprene A colorless, volatile liquid obtained from petroleum or coal tar and occurring naturally in many plants. It is used chiefly to make synthetic rubber
  45. b-carotene
    the most important form of the plant pigment carotene, which occurs in milk, vegetables, and other foods and, when eaten by man and animals, is converted in the body to vitamin A
  46. steroid
    Any of a large class of organic compounds having as a basis17 carbon atoms arranged in four rings fused together.
  47. cholesterol
    A sterol found widely in animal and plant tissues. It is a maincomponent of blood plasma and cell membranes, and it is animportant precursor of many steroid hormones (such as theestrogens, testosterone, and cortisol), vitamin D 2 , and bile acids
  48. protein
    Any of a large class of complex organic chemical compounds that are essential for life
  49. enzyme
    Any of numerous proteins produced in living cells that accelerate orcatalyze the metabolic processes of an organism.
  50. amino acid
    Any of a large number of compounds found in living cells that contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, and join together to form proteins.
  51. peptide bond
    The chemical bond formed between amino acids, constituting the primary linkage in all protein structures.
  52. dipeptide
    a peptide that yields two amino acids on hydrolysis
  53. polypeptide
    A peptide, such as a small protein, containing many molecules of amino acids, typically between 10 and 100 globularprotein one of the two main protein classes, comprising "globe"-like proteins that are more or less soluble in aqueous solutions
  54. primary structure
    the basic sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or protein.
  55. secondary structure
    The protein structure characterized by folding of the peptide chain into an alpha helix, beta sheet, or random coil.
  56. a-helix
    A common structure of proteins, characterized by a single, spiralchain of amino acids stabilized by hydrogen bonds. Compare beta sheet, random coil.
  57. b-pleated sheet
    the second form of regular secondary structure in proteins,only somewhat less common than alpha helix
  58. tertiary structure
    the way in which the helixes or beta structures of a polypeptide are folded or arranged into a three-dimensional configuration
  59. quaternary structure
    The structure that is formed by the joining together of two or more proteins or nucleic acids
  60. molecular chaperone
    A protein that aids inthe folding of a second protein.
  61. Denaturation
    To cause the tertiary structure of a protein to unfold
  62. nucleic acid
    Any of a group of very large polymeric nucleotides that constitute the genetic material of living cells and viruses and that code for the amino acid sequences of proteins.
  63. deoxyribonucleic acid
    The nucleic acid that is the genetic material determining the makeup of all living cells and many viruses.
  64. ribonucleic acid
    The nucleic acid that is used in key metabolic processes for all steps of protein synthesis in all living cells and carries the genetic information of many viruses.
  65. Ribozyme
    A strand of RNA that attaches to specific sites on other RNAstrands and lyses the strands
  66. nucleotide
    Any of a group of organic compounds composed of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group
  67. purine
    Any of a group of organic compounds containing two fused rings of carbon and nitrogen atoms. One ring has six members, the othe rhas five, and each has two nitrogens
  68. pyrimidine
    Any of a group of organic compounds having a single six-memberring in which the first and third atoms are nitrogen and the rest are carbon
  69. adenine
    A purine base that is a component of DNA and RNA, forming a basepair with thymine in DNA and with uracil in RNA.
  70. guanine
    A purine base that is a component of DNA and RNA, forming a basepair with cytosine.
  71. cytosine
    A pyrimidine base that is a component of DNA and RNA, forming abase pair with guanine.
  72. thymine
    A pyrimidine base that is a component of DNA. It forms a base pair with adenine.
  73. uracil
    A pyrimidine base that is a component of RNA. It forms a base pairwith adenine during transcription
  74. phosphodiester linkage
    a group of strong covalent bonds between a phosphategroup and two 5-carbon ring carbohydrates (pentoses) over two ester bonds
  75. ATP
    An organic compound, C 10 H 16N 5 O 13 P 3 , that is composed of adenosine and three phosphategroups.
  76. GTP
    Guanosine triphosphate; a nucleotide similar to ATP, composed of guanine, ribose, and three phosphate groups, and necessary for the synthesis of proteins
  77. cAMP
    a cyclic anhydride of adenosine monophosphate formed from adenosinetriphosphate by the action of adenylate cyclase: acts as an intracellular amplifier or secondmessenger of signals derived from hormones or neurotransmitters
  78. GMP
    A cyclic nucleotide of guanosine that acts at the cellular level as a regulator of various metabolic processes, possibly as an antagonist to cyclic AMP
  79. NADH
    The reduced form of NAD. NADH has one more electron than NAD.
  80. NAD+
    Short for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. A coenzyme thatoccurs in many living cells and functions as an electron acceptor.NAD is used alternately with NADH as an oxidizing or reducing agentin metabolic reactions.
Card Set
Biology Ch3
Ch 3