Rotator cuff m/s
- - Supraspinatus
- - Infraspinatus
- - Teres minor
- - Subscapularis
- - ACL
- - MCL
- - Medial meniscus tear (occur later d/t chronic ACL deficiency)
What is conus medullaris
- Conical distal end of spinal cord
- Adult - lower border of L1-L2
- Infant/young child - upper border of L3-L4
What is cauda equina?
- Collection of nerves at the end of spinal cord
- Extend between upper border of L2-S2
Clinical features of adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder) ?
- Limited active AND passive ROM
- Diffuse tenderness
Inverted/Upside down champange bottle is a feature of ?
- - tapering of leg above ankles
- - brownish-red pigmentation & induration
- - a/w venous stasis/insufficiency
Commonest sote for venous ulcer?
- Gaiter's area - just above medial malleolus
- Most commonly occur near bony prominence at ankle
Difference between monteggia & galleazi fracture
- Monteggia (MU) - BADO classification
- - proximal ulnar fracture + dislocation of radial head
- - FOSH w body twisting (extreme pronation)
- - ORIF
- Galleazi (GR)
- - distal radius fracture + dislocation of DRUJ
- - FOSH w extreme rotation (supine/prone)
- - closed reduction (child), ORIF - k-wire
What are the component of Kocher criteria ? Septic arthritis hip in paeds
- 1. Non weight bearing
- 2. ESR > 40 mm/hr
- 3. WBC > 12,000
- 4. Temp. > 38.5
What is Salter Harris classification
- Used for physeal fracture classification
- 1. Straight across
- 2. Above
- 3. Lower
- 4. Through
- 5. Erasure of growth plate/crush
- Most common is type 2
- Difficult to differentiate type 1 & 5
Characteristic of clubfoot/talipes equinovarus
- Cavus of midfoot - high-arched foot
- Adduction of forefoot
- Varus of hindfoot - turned inward
- Equinus of hindfoot - plantar-flexion
What is perthe's disease? (Paeds)
Avacular necrosis of femoral head
What is boxer's fracture ?
Fracture of the neck of 5th metacarpal bone
In what injury there's positive fovea sign?
- Triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injury
- Pain at b/w ulnar styloid, flexi carpi ulnaris and pisiform
What is carpal tunnel syndrome?
Entrapment of median nerve within carpal tunnel
What are the hand m/s innervated by median nerve ?
- LOAF - thenar eminence
- 1. Lateral 2 lumbricals - MCP flex, IPJ extend
- 2. Opponen pollicis - opposes thumb
- 3. Abductor pollicis brevis - abducts thumb
- 4. Flexor pollicis brevis - flex thumb
Special tests for carpal tunnel syndrome
- 1. Durkan test/Compression carpal tunnel test - most sensitive
- 2. Phalen test - wrist volar flexion
- 3. Tinel test
Anatomical snuffbox innervated by?
Radial nerve (superficial branch)
What are the cardinal features of Flexor Tenosynovitis ? Kanavel's sign
- Kanavel's sign
- 1. Uniform swelling the entire digit
- 2. Finger held in slight flexion (passive flexion)
- 3. Pain with passive extension - most reliable sign
- 4. Tender along tendon sheath (limited)
What is Felon?
Subcutaneous abscess of fingertip pulp
What is Allen test ?
To assess blood supply of the hand
- Ask pt to make fist
- Press on ulnar and radial artery
- Open fist
- Release one of the artery
Ex: ganglion cyst
What is triggering finger ?
Inflammed tendon sheath cause it to bwcome thicker laada to narrowing of the tendon tunnel leads to nodule formation of the tendon at the entrance
- Finger locked in flexed position
- Snap with forced extension - triggering
- Finger clicking
What is Finkelstein test?
- Place thumb in a closed fist
- Tilt hand downward ulnarly
- Pain is positive for De Quervain tenosynovitis
Difference between Golfer's and Tennis elbow
- Golfer's Elbow - medial epicondylitis
- - overuse of flexor-pronator muscles
- - common flexor tendon (FCR,PL,FCU, FDS) & Pronator teres
- - Reverse Cozen test
- Tennis Elbow - lateral epicondylitis
- - overuse extensor-pronator muscles
- - ECRB, ECRL, ECU
- - Cozen test
What is De Quervain Tenosynovitis?
- Inflammation of tendon sheath of:
- - Extensor pollicis brevis (EPB)
- - Abductor policis longus (APL)