Lab Values

  1. Albumin
    • No restrictions
    • Normal Ranges: 3.5-5g
    • Hypo S/S: Hypoalbuminemia: peripheral edema, asites
    • Hyper S/S: Hyperalbuminemia: dehydration, severe vomiting, severe diarrhea
    • A decrease could result from: cirrhosis of the liver, acute liver failure, pre-eclampsia, colitis
    • An increase could result from: dehydration
  2. Calcium
    • No restrictions
    • Normal Ranges: 9-11mg/dl
    • Hypocalcemia: Tetany, twitches, tremores,spasms of larynx, tinging numbness in fingers
    • Hypercalcemia: Lethargy, headaches, weakness, muscle flaccidity, heart block, anorexia
    • Decrease could result from: diarrhea, malabsorption of Ca from GI tract, extensive infections, chronic renal failure, pancreatitis
    • Increase could result from: Hyperthyroidism, malignant, neoplasm of the bone, lung, breast, bladder, or kidney, multiple myeloma
  3. Glucose
    • NPO except H20 12 hours before
    • Normal Ranges: 70-110 mg/dl
    • Hypoglycemia: nervousness, weakness, confusion, cold/clammy skin, diaphoresis, increased pulse rate
    • Hyperglycemia: excessive thirst (polydipsia), excessive urination (polyuria), excessive hunger (polyphagia) and weight loss
    • A decrease could result from: Hypoglycemic reaction, stomach, liver, lung cancer, cirrhosis of liver, adrenal gland hypofunction.
    • An increase could result from: DM, diabetes acidosis, adrenal gland hyperfunction (Cushing's), acute MI, infections, renal failure
  4. Phosphorus
    • NPO except H20 8hrs before
    • Normal Ranges: 2.5-4.5 mg/dl
    • Hypophosphatemia: anorexia, pain in the muscles and bones
    • Hyperphosphatemia: hypocalcemia
    • A decrease could result from: Anorexia, pain in muscle and bones, tetany (muscle spasms)
    • An increase could result from: Kidney dysfunction, decreased urine output (<25cc/hr or <600cc/day
    • Decreased Ca levels
  5. Potassium
    • No restrictions
    • Normal Ranges: 3.5-5.3 mEq/L
    • PANIC: if below 3.5 or above 7
    • Hypoalkalemia: hypotension, dizziness, cardiac dysrythmias, leg cramps, abdominal distension, NVD
    • Hyperalkalemia: Bradycardia, twitching, tingling, oliguria, numbness of extremities
    • A Decrease could result from: vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, malnutrition, starvation, stress, diabetic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis
    • An Increase could result from:Oliguria and Anuria, acute renal failure, IV potassium in fluids, Addison's diseases, burns
  6. Sodium
    • No restrictions
    • Normal Ranges: 135-145mEq/L
    • Hyponatremia: Apprehension, anxiety, muscular twitching, muscular weakness, headaches, tachycardia
    • Hypernatremia: Restlessness, thirst, flushed skin, sticky mucous membranes, a rough, dry tongue, tachycardia
    • A decrease could result from: vomiting, diarreah, diaphoresis, tissue injury, SIADH, burns
    • An increase could result from: Dehydration, sever vomiting, diarrhea, CHF, hepatic failure
  7. Chloride
    • No restrictions
    • Normal Range: 95-105mEq/L
    • Hypochloremia: Hyperexcitability of nervous system and muscle tetany, slow shallow breathing
    • Hyperchloremia: Weakness, lethargy, deep, vigorous breathing
    • A decrease could result from: vomiting, diarreah, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, diabetic acidosis, heat exhaustion, metabalkalosis
    • An increase could result from: Hypernatremia, hyperparathyroidism, head injuries, hyperventilation, metabolic acidosis.
  8. BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen)
    • NPO 8hrs
    • Normal Ranges: 5-25mg/dL
    • Hypo S/S: Overhydration, liver failure
    • Hyper S/S:Dehyration, decreased blood pressure, fast pulse, increased respiration, severe cough, shock
    • A decrease could result from: severe liver damage, low protein diet, overhydration, malnutrition
    • An increase could result from: dehydration, GI bleeding, pre-renal failure, DM, MI, renal insufficiency from shock, sepsis, kidney disease
  9. Creatinine
    • No red meat
    • Normal Ranges: 0.5-1.5ml/dL
    • Hypo S/S: Creatinine will not increase when hydrated
    • A decrease could result from: Pregnancy, eclampsia
    • An increase could result from: Acute&Chronic renal failure, prolonged shock, leukemias, cancers, Hodgkin's disease
Card Set
Lab Values
Nursing Lab Values