Anatomy - upper limb

  1. Axillar region - overview - where, what junction / passageway
    • - area underneath glenohumeral joint
    • - at junction of upper limb and thorax
    • - passageway - NV and muscular structure enter/leave upper limb
  2. Axillar - overall shape
    • - pyramid
    • - 4 sides, open apex and base 

    Image Upload 1
  3. Axilla - borders
    • - Apex: 
    • - Lateral wall: 
    • - Medial wall: 
    • - Anterior wall: 
    • - Posterior wall: 

    Image Upload 2
  4. Axilla borders, apex
    • - Apex: also known as axilla inlet 
    • + lateral border of first rib 
    • + posterior border of clavicle
    • + superior border of scapula

    ((mini borders of border, 3 sides)
  5. Axilla borders - anterior border
    • - pec major 
    • - underlying pec minor 
    • - & subclavius

    • pec major: 
    • Image Upload 3
    • pec minor: 
    • Image Upload 4
    • subclavius: 
    • Image Upload 5
  6. Axillar borders - posterior
    • formed by 
    • subscapularis, teres major, latissimus dorsi 

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  7. Axillar borders - lateral
    intertubecular groove of humerus 

    Image Upload 9
  8. Axillar borders - medial wall
    serratus anterior + thoracic wall (ribs and intercostal muscles)

    serratus anterior

    Image Upload 10
  9. Ulnar tunnel - overview where, transmits what
    • - located on posterior aspect of elbow region 
    • - ulnar nerve from upper arm into forearm

    Image Upload 11
  10. ulnar tunnel - borders
    • - lateral: medial epicondyle of humerus
    • - medial: olecranon

    • - floor: elbow joint capsule + medial collateral ligament of elbow 
    • - roof: ligament between epicondyle and olecranon (cubital tunnel retinaculum or arcuate ligament of Osbourne)

    (Italics - for details missing after 1st recall)

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    • Image Upload 13
  11. Cubital tunnel - contents
    • - Ulnar nerve - after this space -> travels between 2 heads of FCU, continuing into forearm and hand 
    • - some fat 

    Image Upload 14
  12. Cubital tunnel syndrome - symptoms
    • - altered sensation in ulnar n. distribution
    •     + medial 1.5 fingers & associal palm area 
    • - some motor function 
    •     + medial lumbricals, interossei, adductor longus pollicis, hypothenar eminence)
  13. Cubital tunnel syndrom - what, how common, exacerbated y
    - refers to: compression of ulnar n. within ulnar tunnel 

    • - 2nd most common peripheral neuropathy in upper limb
    •    + after carpel tunnel syndrome

    • - exacerbated by elbow flexion 
    •    + as pressure inside butla tunnel is highest
  14. Carpal bones - name, mneumonic
    • Scaphoid - Lunate - Triquetrium - Pisiform 
    • Trapezium - Trapezoid -  Capitate - Hamate

    ((Actually 2nd row is more distal, upper ish))

    • - rad - uln: Some Lovers Try Position That They Cannot Handle * (use this) 
    • (- or in U shape: Straigh Line To Pinky, her Comes the Thumb)
  15. Carpal bones - meaning, expanded to remember
    • Thuyền nguyệt tháp đậu 
    • Thang thê cả móc 

    • - Scaphoid: boat shaped
    • - Lunate: moon - shaped
    • - Triquetrum: three cornered (hay vần nhầm nhất/nhớ lộn với capitate)/ pyramidal
    • - Pisiform: pea shaped 

    • - Trapezium: table (um, triumph đi trước / thumb) (4-sided bone)
    • - Trapezoid: resembles a table (wedged shaped bone) 
    • - Capitate: head shaped
    • - Hamate: hooked bone

    Image Upload 15

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  16. Carpal bones - relative position, hamate + pisiform
    • - from Guyon's canal:
    •    + hamate actually more radial (& obviously distal) to pisiform

    Image Upload 17
  17. Carpal bones - articulation, scaphoid
    - proximally: w/ radius -> also radial border of carpal tunnel

    • - bigger picture: 
    • proximally - scaphoid & lunate articulate w. radius 
    •  → radio-carpal joint 

    ((distally: 1st 2 in distal rows + 1 bit: trapezium, trapezoid, capitate))


    Image Upload 18
  18. carpal bones - most commonly 1. fractured, 2. dislocated
    • 1. scaphoid - largest in proximal row, most commonly #
    • 2. lunate - found centrally, betw. scaphoid + triquetrum
  19. Carpal bones - articulation, lunate
    • - proximally: with radius ((scaphoid + lunate))
    • ((- distally: part capitate ((shared with scaphoid), hamate
    • - then ulnarlly / medially: triquetrum) 

    Image Upload 19
  20. Carpal bones - articulation, triquetrum
    • - pyramidal bone
    • - between lunate and pisiform
    • ((distally hamate))
  21. Carpal bones - articulation, pisiform
    • - sesamoid bone, in tendon of FCU flexor carpal ulnaris 
    • - articulates w/ anterior surface of triquetrum
    • - ulnar border of carpal tunnel
    • - not involved in movement of wrist
  22. Carpal bones - articulation,, trapezium + 1 disctint
    • - 4 sided bone
    • - articulates with 4 bones
    •   + proximally: scaphoid 
    •   + distally: 1st and 2nd MC
    •   + ulnarlly / laterally: trapezoid 

    (distinct tubercle on palmar surface -> projects anteriorly)

    • flip hinh - nhin cho quen
    • Image Upload 20
  23. Carpal bones - articulation, trapezoid
    • - wedge-shaped bone
    • - smallest bone in distal row
    • - articulates w/ 4 bones (& similarity to trapezium)
    •    + proximally: scaphoid
    •    + distally: 2nd MC 
    •    + lat/ulnarly: capitate
    •    + med/radially: trapezium

    Image Upload 21
  24. Carpal bones - articulation, capitate
    • - largest carpal bone 
    • - articulates w/ 5 bones: 
    •    + proximally: scaphoid + lunate
    •    + distally: 3rd MC 
    •    + med/uln: hamate
    •    + lat/rad: trapezoid 

    Image Upload 22
  25. Carpal bones - articulation, hamate
    • - wedge-shaped, hooked bone
    • - palpable due to hamulus
    • - articulates
    •    + proximally: triquetrum (proximomedial) + lunate (proximolateral)
    •    + distally: 4th + 5th MC 
    •    + lat/radi: capitate
  26. Carpal bone #, common mechanism
    • - scaphoid: FOOSH
    • - triquetrum: forceful dorsiflexion of hand e.g avulsion
  27. Ulnar / Guyon's canal - borders
  28. Carpal tunnel - median nerve branches
    • Median nerve: 
    • - Prior to carpal tunnel: 
    •    + palmar cutaneous branch of median n. (travelling superficially to flexor retinaculum)
    • - Once passes through - into 2 
    •    + recurrent branch 
    •    + palmar digital
  29. Carpal tunnel - median nerve branches, after carpal tunnel supplying
    • - palmar digital nerves  
    •    + sensory: palmar skin + dornsal nailbeds of lateral 3.5 digits
    •    + motor: lateral 2 lumbricals

    • - recurrent branch
    •    + thenar muscle group
  30. ulnar/Guyon's canal - ulnar n. branches
    • bifucates within canal into
    • + superificial (sensory) 
    • + deep (motor)
  31. Ulnar canal syndrome - clinical features
    • related to compression of ulnar n. + branches 
    • - Sensory: 
    •    + pain & paraesthesia ulnar 1 1/2 digits
    • - Motor: 
    •    + weakness of thumb aduction (adduction pollicis)
    •    + weakness of finger abduction & adduction (interossei)
    •    + weakness of little finger flexion / abduction & opposition (hypothenar muscles) 

    ((v.much from learning intrinsic muscles, guyon's etc))
  32. intrinsic muscles - nerve supply summary
    • - thenar + hypothenar: median + ulnar n. 
    • - lumbricals: radial 2 median; ulna 2 - ulnar n. 
    • - interossei: all 7 (or 8) ulnar n. 
    • - other 2 (palmaris brevis + adductor pollicis): ulnar n.
Author
trincam2008
ID
354175
Card Set
Anatomy - upper limb
Description
Upper limb learning - long revision, from quiz / leaning topics
Updated