1. Which of the following foods is NOT made by fermentation?
    Orange juice
  2. Who is considered the 'father of Western medicine'?
  3. Who was the first to observe "animalcules" under the microscope?
    Antonie van leeuwenhoek
  4. Who proposed that swamps might harbor tiny, disease-causing animals too small to see?
    Marcus Terentius Varro
  5. Which is the following is a correct statement? Meningitis has several potential causes which included the following:
    • bacteria
    • fungi   
    • viruses
  6. What is the major difference between a microorganism and a microbe?
    They have the same definition
  7. Which of the following is used to add color to microbes so they can be better observed under a microscope?
    Stains and dyes
  8. Which of the following provides nutrients, including water, to microorganisms so they can grow and produce?
    Growth media
  9. Why are Bunsen burners being phased out of use for modern science?
    Safety hazards
  10. What percentage of patients with bacterial meningitis will show bacteria in their CSF Gram stain?
  11. Archaea and bacteria are most similar in terms of their....
    unicellular structure
  12. Which of the following is true of archaea that produce methane?
    They live in the most extreme environments.
  13. ________ is a genus of Archaea. Its optimal environmental temperature ranges from 70 °C to 80 °C, and its optimal pH is 2-3. It oxidizes sulfur and produces sulfuric acid.
  14. Which of the following is incorrect regarding Methanobrevibacter oralis?
    It has a purple color when living in a pH environment below 2
  15. Which of the following can generally be described as methanogens?
    • Methanobacteria
    • Methanococci
    • Methanomicrobia
  16. You encounter a lichen with leafy structures. Which term describes this lichen?
  17. Which of the following is the term for the outer layer of a lichen?
    the cortex
  18. The fungus in a lichen is which of the following?
  19. Which of the following is a correct statement pertaining to cyanobacteria?
    In some lichens, it can fix nitrogen and act as a nitrogen source in some environments
  20. Which of the following is a correct statement about ringworm?
    • Ringworm is a general term for a condition caused by multiple species   
    • Dermatophytes, which is related to ringworm, requires culturing
    • Sabouraud's agar may be used if positive for dermatophytes
  21. EMB agar is a medium used in the identification and isolation of pathogenic bacteria. It contains digested meat proteins as a source of organic nutrients. Tow indicator dyes, eosin and methylene blue, inhibit the growth of gram-positive bacteria and distinguish between lactose fermenting and nonlactose fermenting organisms. Lactose fermenters from metallic green or deep purple colonies, whereas the nonlactose fermenters from completely colorless colonies. EMB agar is an example of which of the following?
    A selective medium, a differential medium, and a complex medium
  22. Haemophilus influenza must be grown on chocolate agar, which is blood agar treated with heat to release growth factors in the medium. H. influenza is describes as _______
  23. What is the basic definition of binary fission?
    The most common mechanism of cell replication in a bacteria
  24. Which of the following is a true statement?
    Obligate anaerobic bacteria must be grown under conditions devoid of oxygen
  25. Which of the following are considered neutrophils, bacteria that grow optimally at a pH within one or two pH units of the neutral pH of 7?
    • Ecsherichia coli   
    • Salmonella spp.   
    • Staphylococci
  26. Bacteria isolated from Lake Natron, where the water pH is close to 10, are which of the following?
  27. In which environment are you most likely to encounter an acidophile?
    a hot vent at pH 1.5
  28. In which environment are you most likely to encounter a hyperthermophile?
    hydrothermal vent at the bottom of the ocean
  29. A soup container was forgotten in the refrigerator and shows contamination. The contaminants are probably which of the following?
  30. Which of the following is the reason jams and dried meats often do not require refrigeration to prevent spoilage?
    low water activity
  31. What part of the male urogenital tract is shared by the urinary and reproductive systems?
    the urethra
  32. A strain of bacteria associated with a bladder infection shows gram-negative rods. What species is most likely to be the causative agent?
    Escherichia coli
  33. The latent stage of syphilis, which may last for years, can occur between
    the secondary and tertiary stages.
  34. Genital herpes is most commonly caused by
    herpes simplex virus 2.
  35. Which oral medication is recommended as an initial topical treatment for genital yeast infections?
  36. What is the only common infection of the reproductive tract caused by a protozoan?
  37. In mumps, what glands swell to produce the disease’s characteristic appearance?
    the parotid glands
  38. Which type of bacterium produces an A-B toxin?
    Vibrio cholera
  39. Which form of hepatitisvirus can only infect an individual who is already infected with another hepatitisvirus?
  40. Which type of helminth infection can be diagnosed using tape?
  41. Which of the following is NOT a way the normal microbiota of the intestine helps to prevent infection?
    It generates large quantities of oxygen that kill anaerobic pathogens.
  42. What types of microbes live in the intestines?
    Diverse species of bacteria, archaea, and fungi, especially Bacteroides and Firmicutes bacteria
  43. What pathogen is the most important contributor to biofilms in plaque?
    Streptococcus mutans
  44. What type of organism causes thrush?
    a fungus
  45. Which of the following is true of HSV-1?
    Infection is generally self-limiting.
  46. Which type of E. coli infection can be severe with life-threatening consequences such as hemolytic uremic syndrome?
  47. Which species of Shigella has a type that produces Shiga toxin?
    S. dysenteriae
  48. Which type of bacterium produces an A-B toxin?
    Vibrio cholera
  49. Which cause of viral gastroenteritis commonly causes projectile vomiting?
  50. Which protozoan is associated with the ability to cause severe dysentery?
    Entamoeba histolytica
  51. Which protozoan has a unique appearance, with a blue halo, when viewed using ultraviolet fluorescence microscopy?
    Cyclospora cayetanesis
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