1. Whether or not elements will join together depends on what?
    It depends on the outer shell electrons.
  2. List the properties of a compund.
    • 1. Composed of 2 or more different elements.
    • 2. That are chemically combined.
    • 3. And so, cannot be seperated physically.
    • 4. The elements in compounds are found in fixed prperties.
    • 5. Compuonds have different chemical and physical properties than the elements of which they're composed of.
    • 6. They are represented with a chemical formula that indicates the lements and their proportions of C6 - H12 and O6
  3. If the outer shell of an element is full, what is it then called?
    And invert or Nobel gases.
  4. Define atom.
    The smallest unit of and element that maintains the chemical properties of that element.
  5. A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is located in the nucleaus of another.
    - is neutral.
  6. Compound
    are made up of atoms of two or more elements in fixed proportions.
  7. A bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.
    Covalent bond
  8. Ion
    and atom, ratical, or molecule that has gained or lost 1 or more electrons that has a negative or positive charge.
  9. If the atomic number of and atom is 46, what is the number of protons in a carbon atom?
  10. One of the kinds of particales found in the nucleus of an atom is the...
  11. Which element is most likely to form and ionic bond...?
  12. An example of a compound is,
  13. Identify number of atoms each element has in these compounds: C6H12O6
    • C: 6 atoms
    • H: 12 atoms
    • o: 6 atoms
  14. If you subtract the protons minus electrons, what do you find?
    The number of neutrons.
  15. Nucleus
    makes up the bulk of the mass of the atom and consists of two kinds of subatomic particles, a proton and a neutron.
  16. Proton
    positively charged
  17. Atomic number
    is the number of protons in an atom
  18. Mass number
    is equal to the total number of protons and neutrons of an atom.
  19. Electrons
    negatively chargerd particals; are there to help balance the amount of protons.
  20. Isotopes
    Atoms of the same element that have a different amount/number of neutrons.
  21. Chemical bonds
    are the attractive forces that hold atoms together.
  22. Covalent bond
    • forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.
    • In other words, a single bond.
  23. Molecule
    is the simplest part of a substance that retains all of the properties of that substance and can exist in a free state.
  24. Ion
    a atom or molecle with an electrical charge.
  25. Ionic bond
    Is when both a positive and negative eletrical charges attract each other, to create a new compound.
  26. What is the relationship between elements and atoms?
    They are both extremely hard to break down into other things.
  27. What is matter?
    anything that occupies space
  28. Energy
    • the ability to do work.
    • Like c-tay $
  29. Chemical reaction
    is one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances.
  30. Reactants
    a substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction.
  31. Products
    a substances that forms in a cemical reation.
  32. Metabolism
    is the term used to describe all of the chemical reactions that occur in an organism.
  33. Activation energy
    the amount of energy needed to start the reaction.
  34. Catalysts
    REDUCES the amount of activation energy that is needed for a reaction to take place.
  35. Enzyme
    is a protein or RNA molecule that SPEEDS UP metabolic reactions without being permanetly changed of destroyed.
  36. Redox reations
    a reaction in which electrons are transferred between atoms are known as oxidation reduction reactions.
  37. Oxidation reaction
    a reactant that LOSES one or more ELECTRONS thus becoming more positive in charge.
  38. Reduction reaction
    a reactant GAINS or more ELECTRONS thus becoming more negatively charged.
  39. Name and describe the physical properties of the three states of matter.
    • Gases- the molecules have more freedom to move around, and move at an extreme speed.
    • Solids- move at a much slower speed than both gases and liquids; maintain a fixed volume and shape.
    • Liquids- maintains a fixed volume, but he molecules move more freely than those of a solid.
  40. Describe the effect of an enzyme on the activation energy in a chemical reaction.
    It would cause the reaction to speed up.
  41. What do enzymes and catalyst do in living things?
    Since enzymes speed up reactions and catalyst reduce the reactions, it helps maintain a healthy body.
  42. Why does a reduction reaction always accompany an oxidation readtion?
    It accompanies the oxidation reaction because in an oxidation reaction, a reactant loses electrons (negative) becoming more positive, therefore the reduction reaction occurs in order to stabalize the reactants.
  43. Polar
    Is when the total charge is neutral, but is unevenly distributed.
  44. Hydrogen bond
    is the force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge and another atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge.
  45. Cohesion
    an attractibe forve that holds molecules of a singke substance together.
  46. Adhesion
    is the attractive forece between two particals of different substances; such as wate and gas.
  47. Capillarity
    is the attraction between molecules that result in the rise of the surface of a liquid when in contact with a solid.
  48. Solution
    is a mixture in which one or more substances are uniformly distributed in another substance.
  49. Solute
    is a substance dissolved in the solvent.

    EX: sugar added with water; the solution 'sugar water' is created, and can be easily reversed.
  50. Solvent
    is the substance in which the solute is dissolved.

    EX: water; even though the solute has been dissolved into the water, the solvent can be boiled away, leaving the solute behind.
  51. Concentration
    (part of a solution) is the aount of solute dissolved in a fived amount of the solution.
  52. Saturated solution
    is one in which no more solute can be dissolved.
  53. Aqueous solutions
    a solutions in which water is the solvent- are universally important to living things.
  54. Hydroxide ion
    the OH- ion
  55. Hydronium ion
    an ion concisting of a proton combined with a molecule of water; H3O
  56. Base
    a solution that contians more hydroxide ions than hydromnium ions.
  57. pH scale
    a scale created for comparing the relative concentrations of hydromium ions and hydroxide ions in a solution; a scale that represets the acidity in a solution.
  58. Acid
    the number of hydronium ions is GREATER than the number of hydroxide ions.
  59. Buffers
    are chemical substances that neutralize small amounts of either an acid or a base added to a solution; substances that neutralize acids and bases.
Card Set
Capter 2.