What is the main type of alcohol present in alcoholic beverages?
Ethanol, aka ethyl alcohol
In terms of alcohol, what is meant by the term potable?
Consumable in moderation without undesirable effects
Of the base ingredients used to produce alcoholic beverages, which ones contain readily available sugars?
Grapes, fruit, sugarcane, molasses, honey
Of the base ingredients used to produce alcoholic beverages, which ones require saccharification?
Rice, potateoes, grains, agave
What is the boiling point of pure water?
212°F / 100°Celcius
What is the boiling point of ethyl alcohol?
173°F / 78°Celcius
In terms of alcohol and water, what does the term miscible mean?
They dissolve in each other
What is the highest level of abv% achievable in commercial distillation?
96.5% abv / 193 proof
A fermented liquid that is intended to be distilled into a spirit
Procedure need to achieve 100% abv
Acids, aldehydes, and other compounds created during fermentation that lend aromas and flavors to distilled products
The transformation of a liquid into a gas
Name a synonynm for tails
Name a synonynm for heads
A term used to describe the alcoholic strength of beverages
The portion of a distillate that contains the potable spirit
The dead yeast cells left over after fermentation is complete
The portion of the distillate that contains high boilers
The part of the distillate that contains low boilers
Define Cut Points
Term used for the separation points between parts of the distillate
Define high boilers
Compounds with high boiling point
Define low boilers
Compounds with low boiling point
Identify the parts of the pot still
1. water source
2. worm condenser
3. cooling water
4. swan's neck (col de cygne)
5. wash inlet
6. still head (chapiteau)
7. copper pot (cucurbite)
8. collecting safe
Name the french term for pre-heater
First distillation; new spirit after first run "scramble"
Define bonne chauffe
The type of still that works in the batch process
The first batch of distillate in brandy production
The first batch of distillate in whiskey production
A technique used to control the parts of the liquid that are passed onto the condenser and those that are returned to the still
Another term for Coffey still
Who invented the column still?
1826: Robert Stein invented the column still
1830: Aeneas Coffey re-engineered and patented an improvement
Portion of a column still that includes the stripping section and the rectifying section
Another term for the purifier column
Column of a still where the final distillation takes place
Another term for a pot and column still
Pipe that connects the plates inside a column still
Type of still able to produce spirits with the highest abv
multiple column still
Portion of a pot still that carries the heated vapors from the neck of the still to the condenser
Identify the parts of the single-column still
1. high alcohol product takeoff
3. 50% abv product takeoff
4. 10% abv product takeoff
6. liquid return (waste)
7. wash feed
8. analyzer-rectifying section
9. analyzer-stripping section
10. reflux tube
Identify the parts of a hybrid still
2. alcohol vapor and water vapor
3. column still
4. pot still
5. heat source
6. liquid return
8. product take off
What term is used for all newly distilled spirits?
What color are all newly distilled spirits?
What are 3 typical post-distillation treatments used in the production of spirits?
finishing: dilution to 37-43% abv, coloring, filtration
Identify the following oak heartwood components:
1. Helps "cement" the fiber cells in the wood together
2. Responsible for the "red layer" in charred barrels
3. Provides structural integrity and chemical resistance to the wood
4. Contains many sugars that are soluble in alcohol
5. Source of methoxyphenols
The methoxyphenol group includes syringol and other compounds smells and tastes like what?
Identify the following processes of oak aging:
1.Occurs due to the presence of charcoal:
2. Occurs due to the degrading of the tannins of the wood
3. Occurs due to the semiporous character of the wood
4. Adds aromas of chocolate, butterscotch, and caramel to the spirit
5. Results in the "angel's share"
3. oxidation, evaporation, concentration
What percent of the mass of the wood are its major components?
Tannins, lactones, volatile phenolic acids: 10%
A type of aromatized wines
A spirit flavored with juniper berry
A type of plum brandy
General term used for spirits made with grain
A spirit produced with the blue agave plant
General term used for spirits made with sugar and sugar products
General term for a broad category of bittered spirits
Typically a clear, water-white spirit with a neutral flavor profile
A spirit flavored with caraway
General term used for spirits made with fruit
Sweetened, flavored spirits
Two spirits distilled from a range of agave varieties
Mezcal and Raicilla
Name 6 spirits distilled from agave
Tequila: tequilana weber azul (blue agave)
Raicilla: any agave except blue agave, e.g., Agave augustifolio, maximiliana, inaequidens (lequchilla), valenciana, rhodacantha, Maquey masparillo