Spirit Production

  1. What is the main type of alcohol present in alcoholic beverages?
    Ethanol, aka ethyl alcohol
  2. In terms of alcohol, what is meant by the term potable?
    Consumable in moderation without undesirable effects
  3. Of the base ingredients used to produce alcoholic beverages, which ones contain readily available sugars?
    Grapes, fruit, sugarcane, molasses, honey
  4. Of the base ingredients used to produce alcoholic beverages, which ones require saccharification?
    Rice, potateoes, grains, agave
  5. What is the boiling point of pure water?
    212°F / 100°Celcius
  6. What is the boiling point of ethyl alcohol?
    173°F / 78°Celcius
  7. In terms of alcohol and water, what does the term miscible mean?
    They dissolve in each other
  8. What is the highest level of abv% achievable in commercial distillation?
    96.5% abv / 193 proof
  9. Define wash
    A fermented liquid that is intended to be distilled into a spirit
  10. Define dehydration
    Procedure need to achieve 100% abv
  11. Define congeners
    Acids, aldehydes, and other compounds created during fermentation that lend aromas and flavors to distilled products
  12. Define vaporization
    The transformation of a liquid into a gas
  13. Name a synonynm for tails
  14. Name a synonynm for heads
  15. Define proof
    A term used to describe the alcoholic strength of beverages
  16. Define heart
    The portion of a distillate that contains the potable spirit
  17. Define lees
    The dead yeast cells left over after fermentation is complete
  18. Define tails
    The portion of the distillate that contains high boilers
  19. Define heads
    The part of the distillate that contains low boilers
  20. Define Cut Points
    Term used for the separation points between parts of the distillate
  21. Define high boilers
    Compounds with high boiling point
  22. Define low boilers
    Compounds with low boiling point
  23. Identify the parts of the pot still
    Image Upload 1
    • 1. water source
    • 2. worm condenser
    • 3. cooling water
    • 4. swan's neck (col de cygne)
    • 5. wash inlet
    • 6. still head (chapiteau)
    • 7. copper pot (cucurbite)
    • 8. collecting safe
  24. Name the french term for pre-heater
  25. Define broullis
    • First distillation; new spirit after first run "scramble"
    • 26-29% abv
  26. Define bonne chauffe
    • second distillation
    • ~60% abv
  27. The type of still that works in the batch process
    pot still
  28. The first batch of distillate in brandy production
  29. The first batch of distillate in whiskey production
    low wines
  30. A technique used to control the parts of the liquid that are passed onto the condenser and those that are returned to the still
  31. Another term for Coffey still
    patent still
  32. Who invented the column still?
    • 1826: Robert Stein invented the column still
    • 1830: Aeneas Coffey re-engineered and patented an improvement
  33. Portion of a column still that includes the stripping section and the rectifying section
  34. Another term for the purifier column
  35. Column of a still where the final distillation takes place
  36. Another term for a pot and column still
    hybrid still
  37. Pipe that connects the plates inside a column still
  38. Type of still able to produce spirits with the highest abv
    multiple column still
  39. Portion of a pot still that carries the heated vapors from the neck of the still to the condenser
    Lyne Arm
  40. Identify the parts of the single-column still
    Image Upload 2
    • 1. high alcohol product takeoff
    • 2. condenser
    • 3. 50% abv product takeoff
    • 4. 10% abv product takeoff
    • 5. boiler
    • 6. liquid return (waste)
    • 7. wash feed
    • 8. analyzer-rectifying section
    • 9. analyzer-stripping section
    • 10. reflux tube
  41. Identify the parts of a hybrid still
    Image Upload 3
    • 1. condenser
    • 2. alcohol vapor and water vapor
    • 3. column still
    • 4. pot still
    • 5. heat source
    • 6. liquid return
    • 7. reflux
    • 8. product take off
  42. What term is used for all newly distilled spirits?
  43. What color are all newly distilled spirits?
  44. What are 3 typical post-distillation treatments used in the production of spirits?
    • aging
    • blending
    • finishing: dilution to 37-43% abv, coloring, filtration
  45. Identify the following oak heartwood components:
    1. Helps "cement" the fiber cells in the wood together
    2. Responsible for the "red layer" in charred barrels
    3. Provides structural integrity and chemical resistance to the wood
    4. Contains many sugars that are soluble in alcohol
    5. Source of methoxyphenols
    • 1. lignin
    • 2. hemicellulose
    • 3. cellulose
    • 4. hemicellulose
    • 5. lignin
  46. The methoxyphenol group includes syringol and other compounds smells and tastes like what?
  47. Identify the following processes of oak aging:
    1.Occurs due to the presence of charcoal:
    2. Occurs due to the degrading of the tannins of the wood
    3. Occurs due to the semiporous character of the wood
    4. Adds aromas of chocolate, butterscotch, and caramel to the spirit
    5. Results in the "angel's share"
    • 1. filtration
    • 2. coloration
    • 3. oxidation, evaporation, concentration
    • 4. extraction
    • 5. evaporation
  48. What percent of the mass of the wood are its major components?
    • Cellulose: 40%
    • Hemicellulose: 25%
    • Lignin: 25-30%
    • Tannins, lactones, volatile phenolic acids: 10%
  49. A type of aromatized wines
  50. A spirit flavored with juniper berry
  51. A type of plum brandy
  52. General term used for spirits made with grain
  53. A spirit produced with the blue agave plant
  54. General term used for spirits made with sugar and sugar products
  55. General term for a broad category of bittered spirits
  56. Typically a clear, water-white spirit with a neutral flavor profile
  57. A spirit flavored with caraway
  58. General term used for spirits made with fruit
  59. Sweetened, flavored spirits
  60. Two spirits distilled from a range of agave varieties
    Mezcal and Raicilla
  61. Name 6 spirits distilled from agave
    • Tequila: tequilana weber azul (blue agave)
    • Raicilla: any agave except blue agave, e.g., Agave augustifolio, maximiliana, inaequidens (lequchilla), valenciana, rhodacantha, Maquey masparillo
    • Mezcal: Agave augustifolia (espandin), esperrima, weberi, patatorum, salmiano
    • Bacanora: Agave augustifolia (yaquiana)
    • Sotol: Desert spoon (Dasylirion wheeleri); formerly considered a variety of Agave
    • Comiteca: Maguey comiteco (Agave Atrovirens)
  62. A type of rum
  63. A spirit made from the leftovers of winemaking
    pomace brandy
  64. What is the typical alcohol content of a beverage fermented from grapes or other fruit?
    8-14% abv
  65. What is the typical alcohol content of a beverage fermented from starchy grains?
    5-10% abv
  66. What role do congeners play in the production of distilled spirits?
    They provide distinct aromas and flavors
  67. Which of the following is part of the analyzer of a column still?

    D. The rectifying section
  68. What color is a new-make spirit?
  69. What is the average annual volume loss while a spirit ages in an oak barrel?
  70. Which of the following processes of oak again is most responsible for the formation of aldehydes?

    C. Oxidation
  71. Which of the following processes of oak aging results from the lowered volume of total spirit?

    C. Concentration
Card Set
Spirit Production
2020 Certified Specialist of Spirits Workbook