1. Is tbe study of microbes which are microscopic living organism
  2. Livjng microbes are known as
    Cellular microbes
  3. Acclular microbes are non living microbes
    Infectious particles
  4. Microoganisn are ubiquitous meaning
    Virtually found everywhere
  5. Acellular infectious agents are
    • Prions
    • Viroids
  6. Cellular microorganisms are
    • Procaryotes
    • Eucatyotes
  7. Archaea and Bacteria are consider what
  8. Algae, fungi and protozoa are consider to be what
  9. Pathogens are what
    Disease causing microbes
  10. Indigenous microfloral are what
    Microbes living in or on body
  11. Can causes dizease but doesnt just awaitz the opportunity to
    Opportunistic Pathogen
  12. Two categories of diseases
    • Infectious diseases
    • Microbial Intoxications
  13. A pathogen colonizes persons body and cause a disease
    Infectious disease
  14. Pathogen produces a toxjn in vitro and person ingest toxin causing disease
    Microbial intoxication
  15. Lives on death and decay matter
  16. Microbes used to clean up toxic wastes
  17. Types of culture media
    • Liquid
    • Solid
    • Biochemical reaction
  18. Interfere with synthesis of the bacterial cell wall that have maximum effect on dividing bacteria
  19. Examples of penicillin
    • Amoxil
    • Augmentin
    • Ampicillin
  20. Beta lactam antibiotics thus interferes cell and walls
  21. First Generation of cephalosporin
    • + Bacteria
    • StepCCC
    • StaphyCCC

    oral and umcompli skin infection
  22. Second generation of cephalosporin
    • - Bacteria
    • -BLL
    • +CCC

    polymicrobial infection
  23. Third generation of cephalosporin
    • -Bacteria and some +
    • SterpCCC Penicillin
  24. Fourth generation of cephalosporin
    • +CCC and - BLL
    • Enterobacteriaceae
  25. Fifth generation of cephalospoein
    • MRSA, Penicillin CCC
    • +CCC
    • -BLL
  26. Broad spectrum drugs that targets bacterial ribosomes and inhibits protein synthesis
  27. Broad spectrum that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis for aerobic -bacteria
    Treats infections from entetobacteriaceae
  28. Inhibits protein synthesis, bacteriostatic @ low Bactericidal @ high
    Binds to cell membrane to change protein function
  29. Bactericidal inhibits DNA synthesis
    Interfere DNA replication of - bacteria
  30. Antibacterial agents are
    • Penicillin
    • Cephalosporin
    • Tetracyclines
    • Aminoglycosides
    • Fluorquinolones
    • Macrolide
  31. Antiviral agents are classified into subclasses of
    • Respiratory Virus infection
    • Hepatic viral infection
    • Herpes virus
    • HIV
  32. Respiratory virus infections are
    • Neurominidase Inhibitors
    • Adamantane antivirals
    • Ribavirin
  33. Hepatic virus infections are
    • Lamivudine
    • Adefovir
    • Entecavir
    • Telbivudine
    • Boceprevir and Telaprevir
  34. Herpes virus are
    • Acyclovir
    • Cidofovir
    • Foscarnet
    • Ganciclovir
    • Penciclovir and Famciclovir
    • Trifluridine
  35. HIV are
    • NRTI (Nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase)
    • NNRTI (Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase)
    • Protease inhibitors
    • Entry inhibitors
    • Integrase inhibitors
  36. Under NRTI are
    • Zidovudine (AZT)
    • Stavudine (d4T)
    • Didanosine (ddl)
    • Tenofovir (TDF)
    • Lamivudine (3TC)
    • Emtricitabine (FTC)
    • Abacavir (ABC)
  37. Under NNRTI are
    • Nevirapine (NVP)
    • Delavirdine (DLV)
    • Efavirenz (EFV)
  38. Both type A & B influenza virus
    Oselta and Zana
    Neuraminidase inhibitors
  39. Oseltamivir is...
    • Oral active
    • Hydrolyzed by liver
    • AE: GI discomfort
  40. Zanamivir is...
    • Via Inhalation
    • Unchanged urine
    • AE: GI discomfort
  41. Limited to influenza A infection
    Not for prophylaxis
    Adamantane antivrials
  42. Amantadine is...
    • Oral and penetrates BBB
    • Unchanged urine
    • AE: GI tolerance
  43. Rimatidine is...
    • Oral and doesnt cross BBB
    • Metabolized at liver (metabolite and parent eliminated by kidney)
    • AE: GI tolerance
  44. Synthetic guanosine analog on RNA and DNA viruses
  45. Ribavirin is...
    • Orally and inhaled (aerosol when RSV infection) given with FATTY meal
    • Metabolite and drug elimintaed urine
    • AE: dose dependent transient anemia
    • Contraind: pregg
  46. Cytosine analog phosphy by cellular enzyme and inhibitor of both HepB virus and HIV RT
    Inhibiting RNA dependent DNA polymerase
  47. Lamivudine is...
    • Oral
    • Unchanged urine
    • Well tolerated
  48. Nucleotide analog phosphy by cellular kinase and if incorporate to viral DNA terminates chain elongation of HBV
  49. Adefovir is...
    Renally excreted via glomerular filtration and tubular secretion
  50. Guanosine nucleoside analog Tx for HBV
    Effective against Lamivudine resistant strain in HBV
  51. Enetcavir is...
    • Unchanged urine
    • Concomitant with renal toxicity drugs, avoid
  52. Thymidine analog Tx of HBV and once incorporated terminates elongation of DNA chain
  53. Telbivudine is...
    • Oral 1x/day
    • Eliminated by Glomerular Filtration as unchanged drug adjust to renal fail
    • AE: elev in liver enzyne and creatin kinase
  54. First oral direct-acting antiviral agents for adjunctive Tx of chronic HCV gentoype 1
    Once binc with NS3 inhibits viral replication in host
    Low barrier resistance
    Used in combi with pegIFN alfa and ribavirin
    Boceprevir and Telaprevir
  55. Telaprevir is...
    • Given with non-low fat meal
    • AE: anorectal discomfort
  56. Guanosine analog Prototypic antiherpetic therapeutic agent cater Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 &2, Varicella Zoster virus
    Phosphy by host cell kinase and incorporate cause premature DNA chain termination
    Tx choice for HSV encephalitis and genital herpes
  57. Acyclovir is...
    • IV, Oral, Topical
    • Well distributed
    • Metabolize and Excreted by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion
    • AE: depends on route
  58. Nucleotide analog of cytosine
    Tx for cytomegalovirus retinitis with AIDS
    Inhibits viral DNA synthesis
    Slow elimination
  59. Cidofovir is...
    • IV
    • Produce renal toxicity abd contraind to renal impairment
    • Oral probenecid and IV normal salin (coadministered with)
  60. What did the highly active anitretroviral therapy do
    Declined CMV infections
  61. Phosphonoformate and reversibly inhibit viral DNA and RNA synthesis
  62. Foscarnet is...
    • IV
    • Eliminated by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion
  63. Analog of acyclovir with greater activity against CMV
    Tx for CMV retinitis
    Phosphy by viral and cellular enzyme inhibiting viral DNA polymerase = chain termination
  64. Ganciclovir is...
    • IV and distribute throughout body
    • Excretion by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion out urine
    • AE: dose dependent Neutropenia and carcinogenic ,embryotoxic and teratogenic
  65. Acyclic guanosine nucleoside derivative for HSV 1&2 and VZV
    Phosphy by viral thymidine kinase and inhibits HSV DNA polymerase
    Penciclovir and Famciclovir
  66. Penciclovir is...
  67. Famciclovir is...
    • Oral
    • Acyclic analog prodrug metabolized to active penciclovir
  68. Fluorinated pyrimidine nuclroside analog inhibiting incorporation of thymidine triphosphate
    Active against HSV 1&2 adn Vaccinia virus
  69. Trifluridine is...
    • Topical ophthalmice preparation
    • AE: transient irritation and palpebral edema
  70. HIV preferred initial therapy
    Combi or 2 NRTI with PI, 1 NNRTI or INTEGRASE inhibitor
  71. Analog of native ribosides phosphy by cellular enzymes and incorporate viral DNA by RT= chain elongation terminated
  72. All NRTI are renally excreted except
    • Abacavir (ABC)
    • metabolized by alcohol dehyrdogenase
  73. NRTI is..
    Inhibition of mitochondrial DNA POLYMERASE
  74. First agent available for Tx of HIV infection preventing perinatal transmission of HIV
    Zidovudine (AZT)
  75. Zidovudine (AZT) is...
    • Oral
    • Penetrate BBB
    • Glucucorinated by liver then out urine
    • Concomitant stavudine and ribavirin, avoid
  76. Analog of thymidine Tx of HIV
    Stavudine (d4T)
  77. Stavudine (d4T) is...
    • Oral
    • Penetrate BBB
    • Unchanged urine
    • Renal impairment interferes with clearance
    • Strong inhibitor of DNA polymerase reducing mitochondrial DNA synthesis = toxicity
  78. Didanosine (ddl) is...
    • Acid lability so TAKE IN FASTING STATE
    • Penetrates CSF but less than zidovudine (AZT)
    • Parent drug at urine
    • Major toxicity so monitor serum amylase
    • Concomitant stavudine, avoid
  79. Nucleotide analog acyclic jucleoside phosphonate analog phosphy is by cellurla enzymes
    Cross resistance may occur
    Inhibitor HIV RT
    Tenofovir (TDF)
  80. Inhibits RT of both HBV and HIV
    Good bioavailability on ORAL
    Lamivudine (3TC)
  81. Fluoroderivative of lamivudine inhibiting HIV and HBV RT
    Hyperpigment on sole and palm
    Emtricitabine (FTC)
  82. Guanosie analog
    Glucuronyl transferase and metabolites at urine
    Hypersensitivity reaction
    Genetic test HLA-B*5701 for potential
    Abacavir (ABC)
  83. Noncompetitive inhibitors of HIV 1 RT
    Allosteric hydrophobic site adjacent and result enzyme inhibition
  84. Combination with antiretroviral drugs in Tx of HIV
    W CD4 >250 , avoid
    M CD4 >400, avoid
    Oral and tissue distribution
    AE: rash
    Nevirapine (NVP)
  85. Antiviral efficacy abd inconvenient
    Delavirdine (DLV)
  86. Preffered NNRTI
    Oral, empty stomach and well distributed
    Metabolized to inactive products
    Substrates of CYP450
    Efavirenz (EFV)
  87. Block activity of protease enzyme which HIV breaksdown to small pcs to assembly
    Makes immature and unable to infect
    Protease inhibitors
  88. Prevent HIV from entering healthy CD4 (T) cells in body
    Entry inhibitor
  89. Help interfere with other way HIV works
    Integrase inhibitor
  90. Reduce negative impact on already established disease
    Tertiary prevention
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