Microbiology Lab Final

  1. Acid stain repelled by the cell's surface
    Congo Red
  2. Active Cultures
    Population of living microbes in sufficient numbers for use in experiments
  3. Aerobic Respiration
  4. Agar is a solid media used in both slants and plants
  5. Agar Plate
    Solid media used to isolate microbes
  6. Agar plates should be labeled on the..
  7. Agent artificially synthesized or manipulated from other products
  8. Agent naturally produced microorganisms
  9. Agent that kills bacteria upon exposure
  10. Agent that slows the growth of bacteria
  11. Alkaliphile
  12. All aerobic microbes lack the enzyme catalase
  13. All equipment and work surfaces should be cleaned with a bleach solution after contacting microbe cultures
  14. Although oxygen is required for metabolism in many microbes, it is toxic to other species
  15. All vaccines contain killed microorganisms
  16. Anaerobic metabolism that produces acetoin
    Butanediol fermentation
  17. Anaerobic metabolism that produces acids, alcohol, and gases
    Mixed acid fermentation
  18. An antibiotic is a synthetic drug produced in a laboratory
  19. Approximately 3000 individuals in the USA die from foodborne illness each year
  20. ______ are asexually produced spores of the penicillium fungus
  21. ______ are bead like chains of spherical cells
  22. _____ are metabolites of aerobic respiration that can damage cell structures
    Oxygen ions and peroxides
  23. _____ are microbes that require a high salt concentration for growth
  24. ______ are responsible for the indirect transmission of disease
    • Airborne droplets
    • Fomites
    • Vectors
  25. _____ are rod-shaped bacteria 0.5 - 20 um in length
  26. _____ are used to maintain safe in packaged and prepared foods
    • Butchering standards
    • Pasteurization procedures
    • Product recalls
  27. Aseptic technique includes:
    • Working quickly and efficiently around open media containers
    • Not talking or breathing over open media containers
    • Washing hands before and after working with media
  28. Aseptic techniques are designed to prevent the spread of microorganisms beyond the intended working environment
  29. Aseptic techniques are necessary to:
    • Maintain safety
    • Isolate pure cultures
    • Prevent the spread of unwanted microbes
  30. Asexual reproduction resulting in two daughter cells
    Binary fission
  31. Bacteriocidal agents kill bacteria by:
    Cell wall lysis
  32. Bacteriostatic antibiotics cause an inhibition of growth rather than cell lysis and death
  33. Barritt's Reagents
  34. Binary fission is a method of sexual reproduction where a single cell (parent cell) will split into four cells (daughter cells)
  35. Binds with bacterial ribosomes to prevent cell growth and cell division
  36. Biochemical tests are designed to identify _____ properties of microbes
  37. Biochemical tests provide more generalized information than do morphological observations
  38. Broth
    Liquid media used to increase the number of microorganisms
  39. A _____ broth after incubation is a positive result when testing for pH and salt tolerance of microbes
    Turbid or cloudy
  40. Butanediol fermentation
  41. Butanediol fermentation produces _____ acids compared to mixed acid fermentation
  42. Butanediol fermentation produces weaker acids than mixed-acid fermentation
  43. Calculated by multiplying the magnification of the ocular lens with the objective lens
    Total magnification factor
  44. The caps and lids of media containers should be placed on countertops when working with cultures
  45. Catalase neutralizes the harmful effects of
    Hydrogen peroxide
  46. C. botulinum infections are associated with poor food handling and processing procedures
  47. The charge of ____ determines how dyes interact with bacterial cells during staining
  48. Cloudiness of a fluid caused by large numbers of particles/organisms
  49. Colder temperatures reduce the reproductive rates of most microbes
  50. Colony forming unit
    Clump of genetically identical microorganisms
  51. A compound microscope is a type of optical microscope
  52. Contagious disease
    Condition passed from person to person
  53. Controlling the spread of contagion within the home requires the identification of potential fomites
  54. Cooking meat to an internal temperature of 160 degrees F kills most microorganisms
  55. Cultures should be soaked in bleach for ____ before disposal
    2 hours
  56. The depth of field is independent of the total magnification factor
  57. Depth of field refers to the distance range that is in focus at a given time
  58. Describes individual colonies on a plate's surface
    Colony forming unit
  59. The diagram below illustrates resistance to drug ____ 
    (nothing around A, little around B, large around C)
  60. Differential staining uses two or more dyes to stain structural components of a cell
  61. Disease
    Disruption of the normal state that impairs bodily structure and function
  62. Disrupts cell wall stability, eventually leading to cell lysis
  63. Distance range that is in focus at a given time
    Depth of field
  64. A dye that stains only the cell leaving the background colorless
    Direct stain
  65. The effective zone of inhibition is the same for all antibiotics
  66. Enzyme that mediates the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide
  67. Escherichia coli resides in the ____ of healthy individuals
    Large intestines
  68. ____ exist only as single cell and do not form clusters of chains
  69. Exposure to bright light can inhibit microbial growth
  70. Eye piece that is typically 10x or 15x magnification
    Ocular lens
  71. Fermentation occurs when carbohydrates are broken down aerobically
  72. Fermentation occurs when carbohydrates are metabolized anaerobically
  73. The field of view ____ as magnification increases
  74. Fomite
  75. Food may become contaminated by coming into contact with microbes in the ____
    • Soil
    • Irrigation water
    • Digestive tract
  76. Fresh foods are generally grown in sterile environments
  77. Gentamicin binds with bacterial ____
  78. Gentamicin is synthesized by a ____
    Gram-positive bacteria
  79. Googles, gloves, and a face mask should be worn whenever working with active cultures
  80. Gram-positive bacteria have an outer cell membrane containing endotoxins
  81. Gram-positive cells have a thick outer cell wall composed of peptidoglycan
  82. Halotolerant
  83. Hand shake
  84. Heat fixing is required for the negative staining process
  85. Held by the turret closest to the stage and range in power from 4x - 100x magnification
    Objective lens
  86. Hypertonic
  87. Identifies metabolic properties of microbes
    Biochemical test
  88. If the 1:100 plate contained 50 colonies, the 1:1000 plate contained 200 colonies, and the 1:10000 dilution plate contained 1000 colonies, which plate would you use to determine the original culture concentrations?
    1:100 plate
  89. The image below is a photograph of gram-negative bacteria (dark pink lines)
  90. In binary fission, bacterial cells grow ____
  91. Incubation
    Process of growing microbes in a controlled environment
  92. Incubation temperatures should remain between ____ C for cultures to develop within 1 to 3 days
    21 - 25 C
  93. Individuals with compromised immune systems should consult their physician before working with cultures
  94. Infectious disease
    Condition caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi
  95. Infectious diseases are caused by microscopic agents called pathogens
  96. Inoculation loop
    Instrument used for spreading microorganisms across a streak plate
  97. The inoculation loop must be sterilized ____ when creating a streak plate
    • Before use
    • Between use in each quadrant
    • After completing all quadrants
  98. Intoxication
    Ingestion of microbial secretions resulting in foodborne illness
  99. The _____ are biochemical tests used to determine the identity of an unknown microbe
    • Methyl red test
    • Voges-proskauer test
    • Catalase test
  100. ____ are causes of foodborne illness
    • Cross contamination
    • Endotoxin exposure
    • Improper hand washing
  101. ____ are common, harmless microbes used in laboratory studies
    • Eschericia coli
    • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    • Staphylococcus
    • Epidermis
  102. ____ is added to nutrient broth to adjust it to pH 9
  103. ____ are factors that limit the distribution of microbes
    • Temperature
    • Oxygen availability
    • pH
    • Osmolarity
  104. ____ are a genus that produces antibiotics
    • Bacillys
    • Cephalosporium
    • Streptomyces
  105. A ____ is a microscopic agent that causes disease
  106. ____ is an example of a direct stain
    • Crystal violet
    • Methylene blue
    • Safranin
  107. A _____ is an example of a fomite
    • Doorknob
    • Tissue
    • Used needle
  108. A ____ is an example of an appropriate incubation site for culturing microbes
    Empty laundry cabinet
  109. A ____ is a non-moving object responsible for the indirect transmission of disease
  110. ____ is a pathogenic bacteria associated with foodborne illnesses
    • Campylobacter
    • Listeria
    • Salmonella
  111. ____ is a positive result for catalase testing
    Bubbling peroxide
  112. ____ is a rod-shaped bacteria important to the study of genetics and evolution
    E. coli
  113. ____ is a solid gel used to grow microbes in the laboratory
  114. A ____ is a substance that stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies
  115. ____ is the transfer of bacteria from one food item to another
    Cross contamination
  116. Kiss
    Direct transmission
  117. Listeria
    pathogenic microbe present on improperly washed raw vegetables
  118. Low incubation temperatures decrease the amount of time required for microbial growth
  119. Low pH
    Methyl red
  120. Main component of an optical microscope that is used to focus an image at high power of magnification is the ____
    Fine adjustment knob
  121. Many microbiology lessons require
    • Plate pouring
    • Active time
    • Incubation periods
  122. The measure of the light intensity absorbed by a sample
  123. Mesh-like polymer present in bacteria cell walls
  124. Metabolic process resulting in oxygen and peroxide by-products
    Aerobic respiration
  125. The methyl red and voges proskauer tests are typically performed together to differentiate bacteria within the family Enterobacteriaceae
  126. The methyl red detects a microbe's ability to ____
    Perform mixed acid fermentation
  127. Methyl red is a pH indicator that turns red in ____ conditions
  128. Microbe numbers in milk ____ the longer it is stored in the refrigerator
  129. A microbe produced positive methyl red results and negative voges proskauer results. What may be concluded about this microbe's metabolism?
    The microbe produces mixed acids but does not use the butanediol pathway
  130. Microbes are found in glaciers
  131. Microbes are only found growing at temperatures between 0 and 100 C
  132. Microbes do not thrive in extreme environments such as hydrothermal vents and alkali pools
  133. A microbe that only produces turbid broths in pH tests at pH 7 is considered a ____
  134. A microbe that produces clear broths when tested at 7% and 15% NaCl is considered a halophile
  135. Microbiology lessons often require incubation periods and active cultures
  136. Mixed acid fermentation
    Methyl red
  137. Mixed acid fermentation produces
    • Acetic acid
    • Ethanol
    • Hydrogen gas
  138. The mold that Alexander Fleming observed preventing bacterial growth was
    Penicillium Notatum
  139. Morphology can be used to identify microorganisms with or without the use of a microscope
  140. Most causes of foodborne illnesses are diagnosed and reported
  141. Most microbes associated with food are harmful to humans
  142. Most microbes prefer to grow in environments that are pH neutral and isotonic
  143. Most microbiology lessons require an average time of ____ to complete
    5 days
  144. Most microbiology lessons can be completed in 1 - 2 hours
  145. MRVP broth contains nutrients and buffers
  146. MRVP broth is used to culture microbes for the ____ test
    Methyl red and voges proskauer
  147. Neutrophile
  148. Negative staining results in a colorless cell on a stained background
  149. Normal flora
    Microbes commonly present in or on an organism that are normally not harmful
  150. Normal flora are found
    • Inside the mouth
    • On the skin
    • Within the large intestine
  151. Normal flora are pathogens typically found in or on the human body
  152. Normal flora frequently cause disease to healthy individuals
  153. Novobiocin is a bacteriostatic narrow-spectrum antibiotic
  154. Novobiocin prevents the function of ____ in a cell
    DNA gyrase
  155. The number of individuals doubles each generation
    Exponential growth
  156. The oil immersion lens provides optimal viewing of large specimens
  157. 1 in 6 Americans become ill from foodborne pathogens every year
  158. One should always ____ before working with microbes
    • Put on protective gear
    • Wipe down the work surface with alcohol or bleach
    • Wash hands and forearms
  159. Open tubes and vials should be opened tilted away from the mouth and nose
  160. ____ optimally grow at a pH between 8.0 and 11.5
  161. Order the steps for performing a dilution series
    • 1. Determine the dilutions of the dilution tubes
    • 2. Determine which plate is the countable plate
    • 3. Calculate the concentration in the original tube
  162. Order the steps of gram staining into the proper sequence
    • 1. Crystal violet is applied to heat fixed cells
    • 2. Iodine is applied to the slide
    • 3. Decolorizer dehydrates gram-positive cell walls
    • 4. Safranin applied to the slide
  163. Pasteurization
    Rapid heating and cooling of a liquid to reduce microbial numbers
  164. Pasteurization reduces microbial numbers by rapidly heating and cooling a liquid
  165. Penicillin is produced by a ____
  166. Penicillin works by
    Disrupting cell wall stability
  167. Performing a 1:8 dilution from the original sample 3 times would produce a dilution of
  168. Peroxide
  169. Plate ____ in the photo should be used for a viable plate count
    B, yeast
  170. Plate pouring
    Process of melting and adding agar to petri dishes
  171. Plates should be incubated agar side down
  172. Plates with ____ colonies per plate are used to calculate CFUs
    30 - 300
  173. A positive voges proskauer test appears as
    A red layer atop yellow media
  174. The products of mixed acid fermentation ____ the pH of buffered media
  175. A pure plated culture should exhibit colony forming units with two or more morphologies
  176. Red-stained media is a ____ result for the methyl red test
  177. Resistant bacteria will exhibit ____ during a kirby-bauer diffusion test
    No zone of inhibition
  178. Rod shaped bacteria linked to
  179. Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Single-celled fungi used for studies involving fermentation, genetics, and aging
  180. Salmonella
    Pathogenic microbe responsible for the majority of reported foodborne illnesses
  181. Salt water is toxic to all microbes
  182. Shared beverages are an ineffective mode of indirect disease transmission
  183. Since the discovery and use of antibiotics, we no longer need to worry about bacterial infections
  184. The ____ sits below the stage and varies the field for viewing the specimen
  185. The slide is placed on the ____ of an optical microscope
  186. Slides should be rinsed after applying ____ during the gram staining process
    • Crystal violet
    • Iodine
    • Decolorizer
    • Safranin
  187. Solute concentration
  188. Solution acidity
  189. ____ solutions can lead to microbial cell swelling and rupture
  190. ____ solutions can lead to cell shrinkage and eventual death
  191. A spherical bacteria with a diameter of approximately 0.5 um
  192. A spreader is used when inoculating a kirby-bauer diffusion plate to ____
    Create a uniform bacterial lawn
  193. ____ stains gram-negative bacteria pink
  194. Staphylococcus epidermis
    Normal flora bacteria used for studies involving osmotic pressure, antibiotic resistance, and biofilms
  195. Sterile swabs should be moistened with ____ before collecting microbes from the surface of food items
    Distilled water
  196. Streak plating is performed by pouring broth onto agar plates
  197. Surfaces with a high diversity  of abundance of microbes should be disinfected frequently
  198. Target DNA gyrase, preventing DNA replication within a cell
  199. To create a series of dilutions, an identical volume of stock (undiluted) solution is added to each of the dilution test tubes
  200. Tryptic soy  agar (TSA) is a ____ media
    General purpose solid
  201. Turbidity and flocculence are indicators of microbial growth in liquid media
  202. Unwashed vegetables possess ____ numbers of microbes than those washed with soap and water
  203. Vaccine
    Substance that stimulates the production of antibodies
  204. Vector
  205. Very acidic or alkaline solutions compromise microbial respiration
  206. A viable plate count is a method of calculating the number of cells in a dilution by counting the number of ____ on agar plates
  207. A viable plate has a count of 95 colonies produced from a 0.125 mL of a 10-4 dilution of the original contains ____ CFU/mL
  208. Visible area of a slide that can be observed
    Field of view
  209. ____ washes dyes from gram-negative bacteria
  210. What is functional media?
    Functional media is media that is used to grow specific types of microbes. The three types are selective, differential, and enriched media
  211. When calculating total magnification of a microscope, ____ should be considered
    Both the ocular lens and objective lens
  212. When creating a wet-mount slide, an individual should drop the cover slip on the top of a water droplet placed on the slide without touching it to the slide first
  213. When on bacterial cell undergoes binary fission, there will be ____ cells present on the 5th generation
  214. When transferring microbes from a broth to a plate, the inoculation loop should be sterilized ____
    • Before placing in broth
    • After spreading microbes on the agar surface
    • Prior to disposal
  215. Work surfaces should be sterilized with soap and water
  216. Zones of inhibition should be measured after they exceed 25mm
Card Set
Microbiology Lab Final