1. What is the composition of blood?
    • Blood plasma 55%
    • formed elements 45%
  2. What is the composition of plasma?
    • Proteins 7%
    • Water 91%
    • Other solutes 1.5%
  3. What are the proteins in plasma and functions?
    • Albumins 54%- Maintains osmatic pressure
    • Globulins 38%- Transports lipids, carbohydrates and fat-soluble vitamins
    • Fibrinogen 7%- blood clotting
  4. Where are plasma proteins synthesized?
    In the liver
  5. What is a colloid?
    A liquid containing suspended substances that don't settle out of solution
  6. What are the other names of a rbc and some info?
    • Erythrocytes
    • biconcave
    • no nucleus transport O2 and CO2
  7. What are the other names of a wbc's and some info?
    • Leukocytes
    • two types- granulocytes and agranulocytes
  8. What are granulocytes?
    • Large nuclei
    • Have granules
    • multi-lobed nuclei
    • e.g. neutrophils. eosinophils and basophils
  9. What are agranulocytes?
    • Small nucleus
    • Not lobed nuclei
    • e.g. Lymphocytes and monocytes
    • don't have granules
  10. What do you call a deficiency of neutrophils?
    • neutropenia
    • can be congenital (from birth)
    • Can create Mouth ulcers and oral thrush
  11. What are platelets?
    • Thrombocytes
    • Cell fragments from platelets plug, release chemicals necessary for blood clotting
  12. What is haematopoiesis or hemopoiesis?
    The process of blood production/ platelets in the blood marrow
  13. What are stem cells
    • all formed derived from a single population
    • undifferentiated cells no function
  14. What do rbc's develop from?
    Pro-erythroblasts ---> normoblast------> reticulocytes------> erythrocytes
  15. What do wbc's granulocytes develop from?
  16. What do lymphocytes develop from?
  17. What do monocytes develop from?
  18. What do platelets develop from?
  19. What does blast mean
    Immature blood cell
  20. What stimulates rbc's production?
    Erythropoietin hormone
  21. How much oxygen is actually attached to the haemoglobin and how much is dissolved in the plasma?
    • 98.5% on haemoglobin
    • 1,5% in plasma
  22. How much carbon dioxide is actually attached to the haemoglobin and how much is dissolved in the plasma?
    from tissues to lungs
    • 7% dissolved in plasma
    • 23% in combination with haemoglobin
    • 70% transported as bicarbonate ions produced as a result of combination of H2O and CO2 because of enzyme carbonic anhydrase found in RBC's
  23. What are the types of haemoglobin in babies?
    • Embryonic and fetal
    • greater attraction forĀ  oxygen
  24. What are the types of haemoglobin in adults?
    • Oxyhaemoglobin-O2
    • Deoxyhaemoglobin
    • Carbaminohaemoglobin-transport CO2
  25. What is the composition of haemoglobin?
    • Globular protein
    • Contains four heme molecules therefore they can carry 4 O2, one iron molecule each

    ferrous iron and protoporphyrin
  26. What kind of iron is in haemoglobin?
  27. Where in the rbc is the heme made?
    The mitochondria
  28. Where is Iron absorbed in the body?
    In the upper small intestine increased by stomach acid and vitamin C
  29. How long do RBC's last?
    120 days in circulation (enucleated)
  30. How does erythropoietin make RBC's
    by stimulating the blood marrow
  31. What is the relationship between O2 and Erythropoietin?
    Inversely proportional
  32. What else can make O2?
    Polycythemia vera
  33. What is polycythemia vera?
    A type of cancer that causes your bone marrow to make to much rbc's. It can thicken your blood and slow it's flow
  34. What is the composition of RBC's?
    • 1/3 haemoglobin
    • 2/3 Lipids, ATP, Carbonic Anhydrase
  35. How is haemoglobin Broken down?
    By macrophages into heme and globin chains
  36. What is bilirubin?
    A yellowish substance in blood that forms when rbc's breakdown
  37. What is agglutination?
    The clumping of particles
  38. What are agglutinins?
    Anti-bodies or other substances that cause agglutinations
  39. What are the blood groups?
    ABO and Rh
  40. What is hemolysis?
    The destruction of RBC's
  41. What is haemolytic disease of the new-born babies?
    Red blood cells break down at a fast rate due to mother and child having different Rh factors
  42. Erythroblastosis?
    making immature red blood cells.
  43. What is haemostasis?
    The process to prevent and stop bleeding
  44. What is vasoconstriction?
    The constriction of blood vessels which increases blood pressure
  45. What is thromboxane?
    • A vasoconstrictor
    • Potent hypertensive agent
    • Facilitates platelet aggregation (forms clusters)
  46. What is endothelin?
    21- amino acids Vasoconstricting peptidesĀ produced primarily in the endothelium having a key role in vascular homeostasis
  47. What is important for coagulation?
    Coagulation factor V and phospholipid (platelet factor III)
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