Chapter 5

  1. Combining Form:

    Ather/o
    plaque fatty deposit
  2. Combining Form:

    Atri/o
    upper chamber of heart
  3. Combining Form:

    Cardi/o
    heart
  4. Combining Form:

    Constrict/o
    to tighten, to narrow
  5. Combining Form:

    Coron/o
    something that encircles like a crown
  6. Combining Form:

    Dilat/o
    to widen
  7. Combining Form:

    Isch/o
    blockage, to block
  8. Combining Form:

    Scler/o
    hardening
  9. Combining Form:

    Sept/o
    divider
  10. Combining Form:

    Sten/o
    narrowness; type of constriction
  11. Combining Form:

    Valvul/o
    Valve
  12. Combining Form:

    Ventricul/o
    lower chamber of heart
  13. Combining Form:

    angi/o
    vas/o
    vascul/o
    vessel
  14. Combining Form:

    phleb/o
    ven/o
    vein
  15. Combining Form:

    aretri/o
    artery
  16. AED
    Automatic External Defribulator
  17. AMI
    Acute Myocardial Infarction
  18. ASHD
    Arterial Isclerotic heart disease
  19. BP
    Blood pressure
  20. BPM
    Beats per minute
  21. CABG
    Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
  22. CPR
    Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation
  23. ECG, EKG
    electrocardiography
  24. LA, LV
    Left Atrium, Left Ventricle
  25. MUGA
    Multiple-gated Acquisition (Scan)
  26. RA, RV
    Right Atrium, Right Ventricle
  27. SVT
    Supraventricular tachycardia
  28. 3 layer of the heart
    • pericardium- outer most layer
    • myocardium- muscular layer of heart
    • endocardium- lines 4 chambers an valves inside the heart
  29. Septum
    Divides heart into right and left
  30. Atria
    Upper chamber of the heart
  31. Ventricles
    Lower chamber
  32. valves
    control the flow of blood through the heart
  33. Tricupsid valve
    between the right atrium and right ventricle
  34. Mitral
    Between the left atrium and left ventricle
  35. Pulmonary Valve
    between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk. It opens as the right ventricle contracts to allow blood to flow into the pulmonary trunk and pulmonary arteries. Then it closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the right ventricle
  36. Aortic Valve
    Between the left ventricle and the aorta it opens as the left ventricle contracts to allow blood to flow from the left ventricle into the aorta
  37. Arteries
    • -carry oxygen rich blood away from heart to body
    • -smooth muscles in walls
    • -aorta is largest to arterioles which are smallest
  38. Capillaries
    • -the smallest blood vessels in teh body
    • -connect arterioles and venules, as an arteriole branches into a network of capillaries that reaches each cell in the body and then recombines into a venule
  39. Veins
    • -carry blood back to the heart from the body or from lungs
    • -valves help blood return
    • -venules are smallest to vena cava as largest
  40. Systemic Circulation

    Left atrium receives oxygenated blood from ______ _______
    pulmonary circulation
  41. Systemic Circulation

    Oxygenated blood is ejected by left ventricle to the __________.
    body
  42. Systemic Circulation

    _____ _____ returns deoxygenated blood and CO2 to right atrium for delivery to the lungs
    Vena Cava
  43. Coronary Circulation
    Part of systemic circulation, 4 primary coronary arteries
  44. 4 primary coronary arteries
    • - left main coronary artery
    • -circumflex coronary artery
    • -left anterior descending coronary artery
    • -right coronary artery
  45. Pulmonary Circulation
    • -right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from vena cava
    • -right ventricle ejects this blood to the lungs
    • -gases are exchanged in the lungs
    • -O2 rich blood is returned to the left atrium for distribution via the systemic circulation
  46. Sinoatrial (SA) node
    Pace maker of the heart, a small area in the posterior wall of the right atrium initiates the electrical impulse that begins each heartbeat
  47. This is the term for chest pain caused by decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries.
    angina pectoris
  48. ___________ refers to abnormal narrowing of a blood vessel.
    stenosis
  49. The term myocardial infarction means that the heart is experiencing which of the following cond
    death of part of the heart due to decreased blood flow
  50. This refers to a vein that has become twisted and swollen due to increased pressure on one of its v
    vericose
  51. This is a disease condition of the heart muscle that includes cardiomegaly and heart failure
    cardiomyopathy
  52. A condition in which the arteries become hardened is called:
    Arteriosclerosis
  53. The procedure in which contrast dye is injected into blood vessels for visualization purposes is re
    angiography
  54. The medical term for enlargement of the myocardium is:
    cardiomegaly
  55. This term refers to decreased blood flow which may result in tissue damage:
    fibrillation
  56. Inflammation of the sac that surrounds the heart is known a: (hint- look at the picture)
    pericarditis
  57. Inflammation of a vein is known as:
    phlebitis
  58. This is a surgical procedure to remove the lining of an artery containing plaque.
    endarterectomy
  59. _______is the use of sound to examine the heart
    Echocardiography
  60. ______is a procedure used to repair an occlude coronary blood vessel in order to restore blood flo
    angioplasty
  61. This type of medication is used to prevent a blood clot:
    anticoagulant
  62. Complete absence of a heartbeat is known as:
    Asystole
  63. _______means enlargement of the heart.
    cardiomegaly
  64. This is the medical term for a surgical procedure used to repair a cardiac valve.
    valvuloplasty
  65. Auscultation
    using a stethoscope to listen
  66. S1
    First sound, lub noise when valves close during systole
  67. S2 dub sound, closing of valves during diastole
  68. pulse
    used to determine rate of beating
  69. What is blood pressure
    measuring the pressure the heart has to use to eject the blood and the pressure at rest
  70. BP= _____pressure/_____pressure at rest
    systolic, diastolic
  71. HTN Stage 1
    130-139 or 80-89 mmHg
  72. HTN Stage 2
    >=140 or >=90 mmHg
  73. Hypotension
    Blood pressure lower than 90/60 mm Hg, usually because of a loss of blood volume
  74. Myocardial Diseases:

    Angina
    Chest pains without death of myocardial tissue
  75. Myocardial Diseases:

    Cardiomyopathy
    Any disease condition of the heart muscle that includes heart enlargement and heart failure
  76. Myocardial Diseases:

    Cardiomegaly
    Enlargement of the heart, usually due to congestive heart failure.
  77. Myocardial Diseases:

    Myocardial infarction (MI)
    Death of myocardial cells due to severe ischemia
  78. Myocardial Diseases:

    Congestive heart failure
    Inability of the heart to pump sufficient amounts of blood
  79. Myocardial Diseases:

    Endocarditis
    Inflammation and bacterial infection of the endocardium lining a heart valve
  80. Myocardial Diseases:

    Mitral valve prolaspe
    Structural abnormality in which the leaflets of the mitral valve do not close tightly
  81. Myocardial Diseases:

    Pericarditis
    Inflammation or infection of the pericardial sac with an excessive accumulation of pericardial fluid
  82. Condition Disorders:

    Bradycardia
    Arrhythmia in which the heart beats too slowly
  83. Condition Disorders:

    Tachycardia
    Arrhythmia in which there is a fast but regular rhythm
  84. Dysrrhythmia:

    Flutter
    Arrhythmia in which there is a very fast but regular rhythm of the atria or ventricles
  85. Dysrrhythmia:

    Fibrillation
    Arrhythmia in which there is a very fast, uncoordinated quivering of the myocardium.
  86. Dysrrhythmia:

    Sick sinus syndrome
    arrhythmia in which bradycardia alternates with tachycardia
  87. Dysrrhythmia:

    Asystole
    Complete absence of a heartbeat
  88. Blood Vessel Disorders:

    Aneurysm
    Area of dilation and weakness in the wall of an atery
  89. Blood Vessel Disorders:

    Arterioscerosis
    Progressive degenerative changes that produce a narrowed, hardened artery
  90. Blood Vessel Disorders:

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
    Arteriosclerosis of the coronary arteries
  91. Blood Vessel Disorders:

    Phlebitis
    Inflammation of a vein, usually accompanied by infection
  92. Blood Vessel Disorders:

    Varicose Veins
    Damaged or incompetent valves in a vein. They allow blood to flow backward and collect in the preceding section of vein. The vein becomes distended with blood, twisting and bulging under the surface of the skin.
  93. P wave
    Activation of the atria
  94. QRS complex
    activation of ventricles
  95. T wave
    Recovery Time
  96. Holter Monitor
    Procedure during which the patient's heart rate and rhythm are continuously monitored as an outpatient for 24 hours
  97. Pharmacologic Stress test
    Test performed in patients who cannot exercise vigorously
  98. Cardiac Exercise Stress Test
    A cardiac stress test (also referred to as a cardiac diagnostic test, cardiopulmonary exercise test, or abbreviated CPX test) is a cardiological test that measures the heart's ability to respond to external stress in a controlled clinical environment. The stress response is induced by exercise
  99. Cardiac Enzymes:

    CPK test
    The creatine phosphokinase (CPK) isoenzymes test measures the different forms of CPK in the blood. CPK is an enzyme found mainly in the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle.
  100. LDH test
    Lactate dehydrogenase (LD or LDH) is an enzyme involved in energy production that is found in almost all of the body's cells, with the highest levels found in the cells of the heart, liver, muscles, kidneys, lungs, and in blood cells; bacteria also produce LD. This test measures the level of LD in the blood or sometimes other body fluids.
  101. Troponin Test
    A troponin test measures the levels of troponin T or troponin I proteins in the blood. These proteins are released when the heart muscle has been damaged, such as occurs with a heart attack. The more damage there is to the heart, the greater the amount of troponin T and I there will be in the blood.
  102. C-reactive protein test
    Test to measure the level of inflammation in the body. Inflammation from sites other than the cardiovascular system (such as inflammation of the gums or from a chronic urinary tract infection) can produce inflammation of the walls of the blood vessels.
  103. Radiology Procedures:

    Angiography
    Procedure in which radiopaque contrast dye is injected into a blood vessel to fill and outline it.
  104. Radiology Procedures:

    Echocardiography
    Procedure that uses a transducer to produce ultra high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) that are bounced off the heart to create an image.
  105. Radiology Procedures:

    Multiple-gated acquisition (MUGA) scan
    Nuclear medicine procedure that uses the radioactive tracer technetium-99m. The camera is coordinated (gated) with the patient's ECG so that images of the heart chambers (with blood and red blood cells in them) are taken at various times.
  106. Radiology Procedures:

    Cardiac Catheterization
    Cardiac catheterization (kath-uh-tur-ih-ZAY-shun) is a procedure used to diagnose and treat certain cardiovascular conditions. During cardiac catheterization, a long thin tube called a catheter is inserted in an artery or vein in your groin, neck or arm and threaded through your blood vessels to your heart.
  107. Surgical Procedures:

    Coronary Artery Bypass (CABG)
    Procedure to bypass an occluded coronary artery and restore blood flow to the myocardium
  108. Surgical Procedures:

    Pacemaker insertion
    Procedure in which an automated device is implanted to control the heart rate and rhythm
  109. Surgical Procedures:

    Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
    Procedure to reconstruct an artery that is narrowed because of atherosclerosis
  110. Surgical Procedures:

    Valvoplasty
    Surgical procedure to reconstruct a heart valve to correct stenosis or prolapse
  111. Surgical Procedures:

    Valve replacement
    Surgical procedure to replace a severely damaged or prolapsed heath valve
  112. Surgical Procedures:

    Carotid Endarterectomy
    In carotid endarterectomy, you receive a local or general anesthetic. Your surgeon makes an incision along the front of your neck, opens your carotid artery and removes the plaques that are clogging your artery. Then, your surgeon repairs the artery with stitches or a patch made with a vein or artificial material (patch graft).
Author
Stephevette
ID
353707
Card Set
Chapter 5
Description
The cardiovascular system
Updated