Test 2 Guide Pharm

  1. Why would a patient take cyclosporine?
    Cyclosporine is a steroid used to suppress the immune system. It can be given while you're getting chemo to quiet the immune response so the chemo kills the cancer cells.
  2. Patient education for cyclosporine.
    Don't take with grapefruit juice, it can raise the levels by 50-200%

    Watch for urine output (can cause renal problems)

    Watch GFR, higher risk for an infection
  3. Nursing intervention:cyclosporine
    Monitor vital signs and watch for fever (SEPSIS). Check CBC (WBC, RBC, Platelets, ANC)
  4. What's the rationale for using two chemo agents instead of one?
    We put most patients on two, three, or four drugs and then depending on where the cell is in its growth in the end of mitosis stage 0123, we try to make the cancer treatment attack the cell at a different point in growth
  5. Why do you need to give vincristine through a large IV line/large vessel?
    You have more dilution in a larger vein, a smaller vein you have more of a chance of damaging the vein.
  6. What drug should a patient not take if they are taking methotrexate?
    Concurrent use with NSAIDs may lead to severe methotrexate toxicity
  7. What does aspirin do?
    It's an anti-platelet aggregation medication.Don't give to anyone under the age of 21 risk for REYE'S SYNDROME Reduces inflammation, fever & pain
  8. What side effect would you have with aspirin?
    • Asthma- Dont give if has asthma; can cause asthma
    • Salicylism- overdose on aspirin, ringing of ears, bleeding, bruising.
    • Peptic ulcer disease (don't give if pt has) 
    • Intestinal blood loss
    • Reye's syndrome
    • Idiosyncratic reactions
    • Noise;tinnitus-ringing of the ears
  9. Side effects of Cyclophosphamide (cytoxan)
    Cytoxan can cause Hemorrhagic cystitis means once the chemotherapy goes through the body and sits in the bladder it makes the bladder bleed the patient can hemorrhage in their bladder.

    • Feel like they have the flu 
    • Their muscles ache 
    • They're extremely fatigued feeling 
    • Low RBC, WBC & platelets
  10. Patient education of cytoxan (cyclophosphamide)
    • Avoid crowds and avoid people with respiratory infections.
    • Make sure the patient takes their temperature at home
    • Tell patients they may feel fatigued
  11. Nursing intervention for a patient getting cytoxan
    To prevent hemorrhagic cystitis we give it first thing in the morning, and we give it with a ton of Iv fluids to flush it out and make the patient urinate, urinate, and urinate so it's not sitting in the bladder making it BLEED
  12. Who would you not give morphine to?
    Hypersensitivity and respiratory condition (COPD, asthma) or low BP because it's a vasodilator
  13. What would you see if you saw a patient having an anaphylactic reaction?
    • Hypotension due to low B/P
    • Dizziness
    • Lightheadedness
    • Vomiting
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Skin Rash
  14. Side effects of doxorubicin aka Adriamycin
    • Stomatisis
    • Anorexia
    • Headache
    • Alopecia
    • Bone marrow suppression
    • Dysrrhymias
    • A Fib (treat with anticoagulant)
  15. Adverse effects of interferon alpha.
    • Flu Like symptom
    • Fever
    • Chills
    • Fatigue
    • N/V/D
    • Severe Depression
    • Myelosuppression
  16. Why would we give cyclosporine?
    Prevention of organ rejection in transplant patients, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis. It is to quiet the immune system
  17. Why would they limit your chemotherapy? (general)
    Chemotherapy is limited if the patient's blood counts are low that put them at risk because they are already immuno-compromised

    Harsh on the body and they need to lower it because it a toxin
  18. Nursing priority for a patient receiving narcotics.
    Ask for pain level first. Check RR and BP (vitals) monitor for adverse effects.
  19. When to withhold a narcotic from a patient.
    We withhold narcotic if RR is below 10 breath per min
  20. Why you wouldn't let a patient crush an extended release pill.
    Crushing an extended release pill can come on too rapidly and must be swallowed whole for slow release.
  21. Half life of narcan and other narcotics and why it's so important
    The half life is short and requires 3-4 doses until the patient can metabolize however it depends on the dose given.

    Half life 30-90 minutes (per drug book)

    Half life 2- 4 hours Morphine (per drug book)
  22. Nursing assessment for a patient getting a narcotic.
    Monitor pain level, vital signs,respiratory status.

    Before administering Narcotics check RR & BP; recheck RR in 30 minutes, Recheck BP & pain scale in 1 hour.
  23. How to prevent a GI bleed if a patient is getting aspirin
    Give it with milk or food.
  24. Adverse effects of chronic tylenol use
    Hepatotoxicity (liver damage). 

    *The total daily dose in a day for adults is 3000mg in 24hrs due to chronic use and liver damage. It used to be 4000.
  25. Colchicine use:
    Treat acute gout & a presurgical prophylaxis to prevent exacerbation (worsening) of gout
  26. Nursing education for a patient getting colchicine
    stay away from fructose sweetened drinks, meat, and seafood because it can cause more uric acid

    N/V/D, abdominal pain, paralytic ileus
  27. What would cause toxicity for a patient getting colchicine
    Radiation therapy and drugs that depress bone marrow function.

    -Also a patient with cardiac disease, renal disease, and hepatic disease.
  28. Assessment for patient taking allopurinol
    Assess medical history, CBC, uric acid base level, LFT, CMP, assess ROM (big toe). 

    Assess for Stevens-Johnson syndrome (Severe rash & blisters RARE)
  29. Epoetin alfa
    Injection products are used to treat anemia, in people with chronic kidney failure 

    stimulates the bone marrow to make reticulocytes

    Hemoglobin < 12 at risk for stroke & MI

    If over 12 give ALOT of fluids to thin the blood & then phlebotomy to take excess blood out to prevent thrombus

    Low iron or folate can NOT take Epoetin alfa 

    Contraindiciated with Iron deficiency anemia
  30. Oprelvekin what labs would you need to monitor?
    Monitor platelet counts! We give this drug anytime the platelets are below 50,000.
  31. What to monitor when your patient is getting epoetin alfa
    RBC count, hematocrit, hemoglobin (we want to keep hemoglobin under 12, or the patient could be at risk for hypertension or a thrombus formation, MI or stroke)
  32. Who could get epoetin alfa?
    -patients with anemia.

    -A patient who needs adequate iron levels

    -pre-op patients with large expected blood loss in the OR.

    ***make sure it is preservative free for infants and babies because the preservatives can cause death!

    Joahovah witness because it's not a blood product
  33. Who should not get epoetin alfa?
    -patients with uncontrolled hypertension.

    -patients with a folate deficiency

    -patients with an iron deficiency

    -patients with GI bleeds
  34. Patient education for filgrastim
    Return frequently for follow-up lab work.

    -report any severe bone pain not relieved by nonnarcotic analgesics. 

    -immediately report any palpitations, dizziness, angina, or dyspnea.
  35. Nursing action with reporting lab work with a patient getting epoetin alfa
    Notfiy HCP if Hgb is over 12 

    Reticulocyte below 20% increase notify HCP (normal person is 2-3-4%)

    Folate levels can be masked by large dose of Epoetin alfa
  36. What would you tell a patient about the response of epoetin alfa
    You will give it 2 to 3 times a week SQ at home

    Do NOT shake

    Do NOT save residual

    Return to hospital in 2-6 weeks for blood work

    Refrigerate multidose vials
  37. Know cell cycle specific treatment
    Cell cycle specific agents act on the cells in a specific phase. They are most effective against tumors that have a large proportion of cells actively moving through the cell cycle and cycling at a fast rate.

    • Vincristine
    • fluorouracil(5-FU, Adrucil, Carac, Efudex)
  38. Know cell cycle non-specific treatment
    they kill the cell in various and multiple phases of the cell cycle.

    Alkylating agents, antitumor antibiotics, hormones, and hormone inhibitors
  39. Nursing action if a patient has an infiltration of a chemo agent
    Stop IV if signs of redness or stinging.
  40. Adverse effects of Oprelvekin (Numega)?
    fluid retention and if a patient has too many platelets from this drug, they will be at risk for CHF & dependent edema.
  41. Know anti-angiogenic drugs (thalidomide) Mode of action
    -Stimulates t-cells, decreases TNF (tissue necrosis factor).
  42. Gold standard for treating rheumatoid arthritis
    MTX (methotrexate).
  43. Assessment of your patient getting the gold standard drug to see if they are getting better.
    Evaluate nutrition, malnourished patients will have a decrease in RBC, WBC

    Assess for infection

    Bone mineral density (BMD)

    Check CBC, CRP, ESR look at inflammation markers
  44. Diet instruction for gout patient
    Stay well hydrated and drink plenty of water

    -Stay away from fructose sweetened drinks, organ meats, red meats, and seafood.

    -Avoid alcohol

    -Increase dairy and folic acid foods
  45. Ibuprofen side effects
    -GI upset & bleeding, hepatotoxicity, and acute renal failure. Increase risk of CVA or MI with prolonged use.
  46. Religious considerations with anemia patients
    Jehovah witnesses cannot receive blood
  47. Assessment of the patient taking vincristine
    Assess the IV site for redness or swelling or any extravasation. 

    -Assess pt. For neurotoxicity.

    -Assess patient for allergies to plants or flowers. 

    -Assess patient’s lungs because this drug can cause pulmonary problems or bronchospasms. 

    -Monitor BP.
  48. Patient assessment methotrexate
    Monitor for photosensitivity and idiosyncratic pneumonitis

    -Monitor IV site frequently for extravasation .

    -Assess for mucosal damage (mouth). As well as stomatitis of the mouth and throat.
  49. How to administer iron injections
    -z-track method
  50. Giving liquid iron patient education
    Liquid iron can stain the teeth and skin, so educate the patient to take their liquid iron with a straw or to brush their teeth right afterwards.
  51. Patient education for immunosuppressants like humera.
    They should NOT be around people who are infected or sick

    They should wash their hands A LOT

    patient has no relief by 4 month with concurrent treatment with methotrexate they need to go back to see the HCP

    Teach them how to give a proper SQ injection

    Assess for ROM
  52. Which drugs decrease inflammation, decrease in fever,and decrease in pain and which ones do not.
    -Aspirin and ibuprofen decrease inflammation, fever & pain

    -Tylenol is NOT an anti inflammatory but is used for pain & fever

    -Corticosteroids (glucocorticoids) are great for decreasing severe inflammation.
  53. Raloxifene for osteoporosis, know lab values and patient education
    Check calcium levels 8.6-10.3 is normal
  54. Know SERMS Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator drugs, Side effects risk factors
    S/E: hot flashes, leg cramps, weight gain, flu like symptoms.
  55. Why would some patients be anemic? (ages)
    Most common in infants and children, adolescents, pregnancy, poor, elderly. 

    -bood loss 

    -Inadequate food (iron) intake (especially 9-24 months of age if milk is primary food) , also people on vegetarian diets, alcoholics

    Rapid growth (pregnancy and adolescents whose demand is increased)
  56. Cretinism
    Kids with hypothyroidism.
  57. Exophthalmia
    In hyperthyroidism, eyes can appear very large and stick out.
  58. Side effects of all steroids?
    • cataracts
    • ulcers
    • skin thins
    • hersutism
    • immunesupression
    • necrosis of the hip/shoulder
    • glucose
    • obesity
    • infection
    • dependent edema
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Test 2 Guide Pharm