1. Note: 9 of the top 15 brands (60%) are from India
  2. What is the name for the Cognac 2-stage distillation process?
    • à repasse:
    • First stage: première chauffe (produces brouillis at 28-32% abv)
    • Second stage: bonne chauffe (heart at 60% abv)
  3. Define têtes and secondes
    Portion of the heads or tails redistilled with either the base wine or the brouillis of a subsequent batch
  4. T or F? In Cognac, distillation lasts for 3-5 months
    True: all distillation must be completed by March 31 of the year after harvest to ensure the wine does not age prior to distillation
  5. What is a chai?
    A well-ventilated above ground warehouse to age Cognac
  6. Name the top-selling cognac brands
    • Courvoisier
    • Martell
    • Hennessy
    • Rémy Martin
  7. Describe the styles of the main Cognac houses
    • Martell: discard lees; add secondes back into base wine for lighter style
    • Hennessey: adds half of seconds to base wine and half to brouillis for medium style
    • Remy: use lees; add tetes and seconds to brouillis for richer style
  8. What type of oak is preferred to make Cognac barrels?
    Limousin oak (from Limoges forest) because of its porosity (slow oxidation and low in harsh tannins). However, oak from Alliers or Tronçais may also be used.
  9. T or F? The age of cognac is calculated from April 1, following the vintage.
  10. Is cognac vintage/age-dated?
    Single variety and single vintage/age-dated cognac rare. Most cognacs are carefully created blends by experienced master blenders.
  11. Is Blanche, or “white cognac,” produced?
    No: is not allowed by the AOC regulations
  12. In which department of France is Armagnac produced?
    Gers: southest of Bordeaux in the heart of Gascony
  13. Name the 3 crus of Armagnac
    • Bas-Armagnac: west, highest quality/elegant; largest grape producer
    • Ténarèze: central, round and complex spirits
    • Haut-Armagnac: east, lightest style; most vinyards produce Côtes de Gascogne wine and Floc de Gascogne AOC fortified wine (vin de liqueur)
  14. Describe the topsoil in Bas-Armagnac
    boulbènes: sand, chalk, clay, and stones
  15. Is Blanche, or “white armagnac,” produced?
    Yes: aged for 3 months in inert containers
  16. Name the grapes used to produce armagnac
    • Main varieties: Ugni Blanc (Saint-Émilion, Baco Blanc (Baco 22a), Folle Blanche, Colombard
    • Phantom varieties: Clairette de Gascogne (Blanc Dame), Meslier Saint-François, Plant de Graisse, Jurancon Blanc, Mauzac Blanc, Mauzac Rosé
  17. Name the 4 styles of Pisco from Chile
    • Pisco Corriente (Tradicional): min 30% abv
    • Pisco Especial: min 35% abv
    • Pisco Reservado: min 40% abv
    • Gran Pisco: min 43% abv
  18. T or F? Pisco from Peru must be 38-48% abv
  19. Name 4 styles of Pisco from Peru
    • Pisco Puro
    • Pisco Acholado
  20. Name the 3 styles of Brandy from South Africa
    • Pot Still
    • Blended
    • Vintage
  21. Name the terms used for German brandy aged min 6 months and 1 year in wood
    • Alter Weinbrand: min 6 months in wood ("age")
    • Uralt Weinbrand: min 1 year in wood ("ancient")
  22. What is pomace brandy from France called?
    Eau-de-vie de marc
  23. What is the minimum age of California brandy?
    • 2 years in oak
    • Pisco Mosto Verde
    • Pisco Aromatico
    • (other types exist)
  24. Name the 3 AOCs of Calvados
    • Calvados
    • Calvados Pays d'Auge
    • Calvados Domfrontais
  25. Name the grapes used to produce Brandy de Jerez
    • 95% Airén
    • 5% Palomino
  26. Name a pomace brandy made throughout Spain
    • Orujo (e.g., Orujo de Galicia PGI): unaged
    • Orujo envejecido: aged min 1 year in barrels up to 500 L (or 2 years in larger barrels)
  27. Name a regional cocktail made using Orujo de Galicia
    Queimada: orujo, sugar, lemon peel, cinnamon, and coffee beans set aflame in a clay pot
  28. Name a pomace brandy from Portugal
    • Aguardente Bagaceira: aka destilação do bagaço or simply bagaço
    • PGI: AB Alentejo, AB Bairrada, AB da Região dos Vinhos Verdes
    • Velha: term for bagaço aged at least 2 years in oak
  29. Name 5 requirements for Mezcal Ancestral
    • Agave must be cooked in pits
    • Milling must use a traditional method (e.g., wooden bats or stone wheel)
    • Fermentation must take place in a traditional vessel
    • Distillation must be fueled by direct fire
    • Bagazo (leftover agave fibers) must be used during fermentation
  30. How many times is tequila distilled?
    • Minimum of 2 times
    • No regulations on type of still but most use a pot still
  31. Grain bill and distillation requirements for Single Grain Scotch
    • Produced at a single distillery
    • Malted barley plus other grains
    • Any method of distillation
  32. What type of Cinchona bark is used in Barolo Chinato?
    Calisaya bark
  33. PGI gin of Lithuania
    Vilnius Gin
  34. Approved areas of production for PGI Genever
    • The Netherlands
    • Belgium
    • France (2 departments)
    • Germany (some areas)
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