Kaplan Organic chemistry Chapter 1

  1. Naming complex molecule rules
    • 1. identify longest backbone
    • 2. Number, starting on the side where the first substituent comes up first
    • 3. Name substituents
    • 4. Assign numbers to substituents
    • 5. Put the names together, alphabetizing the substituents
    • ie.
  2. Special pre-fixes that are alphabetized in the group name
    • CYCLO
    • Iso
    • NEO
  3. Rules for naming Cycloalkanes
    • pre-fix CYCLO used
    • If substituents out of ring, start carbon 1 where there is the GREATEST substitutions so there is
    • ie. if iso propyl or a di-methyl, do it so the 2 methyl get the first carbon, (1,1 di-methyl, vs 3,3 di-methyl)
  4. Alkene prop and eth common names
    • propylene or propene
    • ethylene or ethene
    • (lene or ene for these)
  5. Alkene rules
    • Number backbone so double bond CC receives lowest possible number!
    • Multiple double bonds named di, tri, tetra, penta, etc.
  6. Alkene substituent naming if ethylene or propylene
    • If there is ETHylene with substituent: VINYL (ie vinyl chloride)
    • If there is a Propylene with substituent at C3: Allyl (ie Allyl bromide)
  7. Alkyne common name for ethyne
    ethyne: ACETYLENE
  8. Haloalkane naming w substituents
    • Substituent of halogen (ie chloride) follows alphabetically same as other substituents (ie methyl would come after chloro in naming)
    • ALKYL halide: so if isopropane with iodide, will be ISOPROPYL iodide
    • if t-butane with bromide: will be t-BuTYL bromide
  9. Alcohol rules and substituent naming order
    • ending of -ol
    • if 2 alcohol groups: use suffix DIOL, with 2 numbers to tell where they are
    • alcohol takes priority over ALKANE or ALKENE
  10. If 2 alcohol groups on adjacent carbons or on same carbon
    • adjacent carbons: VICINAL
    • on same carbon: GEMINAL, also called carbonyl hydrates
  11. Alcohol common naming
    • can end with 'alcohol'
    • ie 2-propanol: ISOPROPYL alcohol
    • methanol: methyl alcohol
  12. Ether pre-fix and naming rules
    • alkoxy
    • ie 2-methoxycyclopenane
    • name two alkyl groups in alphabetical order and add word ether
  13. Cyclic ether naming
    • begins at oxygen and proceeds to provide lowest number for substituents
    • 3-membered rings: OXIRANES or epoxides
  14. Aldehyde suffix and rule
    • suffix: -al (ie n-butanAL)
    • carbonyl carbon always receives LOWEST number unless substituent w higher priority
    • For aldehydes, numbering not always needed since carbonyl will always be CdoubleOH group
  15. Common names for Aldehydes (1, 2 and 3 carbon)
    • FORMaldehyde
    • ACETaldehyde
    • PROPIONaldehyde
  16. Common name for ketone w 2 carbon
    ACETONE vs 2-propanone or dimethyl ketone
  17. Ketone suffix and rules
    • suffix: -one
    • carbonyl is the lowest possible number UNLESS there is higher priority substituent
    • In more complex molecules the carbonyl can have the prefix oxo-
    • Or can name alkyl groups in alphabetical order and then add the word KETONE
  18. Carboxylic acid suffix and rules
    Suffix: -oic acid
  19. Common names for carboxylic acids with 1, 2, 3, carbons
    • 1: formic acid (vs methanoic acid)
    • 2: Acetic acid (vs ethanoic acid)
    • 3: propionic acid (vs propanoic acid)
  20. Amines suffix or prefix
    • Suffix: -amine replacing -e
    • prefix: amino- for complex molecules
    • If N has two substituents, N is the number vs 1, 2
Card Set
Kaplan Organic chemistry Chapter 1
DAT KAPLAN ochem organic chemistry chapter 1