Video Production

  1. 480p
    A scanning of digital television. The p stands for progressive, which means that each complete television frame consists of 480 visible lines that are scanned one after another
  2. 720p
    A scanning system of digital television. P=progressive, 720 visible lines that are scanned one after the other. High definition television
  3. 1080 i
    high definition i=interlaced, which means that a complete frame is formed from two interlaced scanning fields. high end HDTV system
  4. analog
    a signal that fluctuates exactly like the original stimulus
  5. binary digit (bit)
    the smallest amount of information a computer can hold and process 8 bits (2/8) is called a byte
  6. codec
    stands for compression-decompression. Can be one of several compression systems of digital video, graphics, and audio files.
  7. compression
    temp rearrandement or elimination of redundant picture information for easier storage and signal transport.
  8. digital
    pertaining to dara in the form of binary digits (on/off pulses)
  9. digital television (DTV)
    higher image resolution advanced television (ATV)
  10. field
    1/2 of a complete scanning cycle, with two fields necessary for one television picture frame. In analog (NTSC) television, there are 60 fields, or 30 frames, per second
  11. frame
    complete scanning cycle of electron beam
  12. frame rate
    (fps) the time it takes to scan a complete frame
  13. HDTV
  14. HDV
    a recording system that images of the same resolution as HDTV but with inferior colors
  15. interlaced scanning
    the scanning of all odd-numbered lines (first field) and then the even-numbered lines (second field) making a complete television frame
  16. progressive scanning
    the consecutive scanning of lines from top to bottom
  17. quantizing
    step in the digitization of analog signal. changes sampling points into discrete numerical values (0's and 1's)
  18. refresh rate
    number of complete scanning cycles per second (frames per second)
  19. sampling
    taking a number of samples (voltages) of the analog video or audio signal at equally spaced intervals
  20. scanning
    movement of the electron beam from left to right and from top to bottom on the telecision screen
  21. You can not compress __________ signals
  22. Downloading
    data is sent in packets that are often out of order
  23. streaming
    you can open the file and listen to and watch the first part while the data delivery of the balance of the file is still in progress
  24. Manipulation
    digital process permits a great number of quick manipulations of audior and video info
  25. aperture
    Iris opening of a lens; usually measured in f-stops
  26. beam splitter
    optical device within the camera that splits the white light into 3 primary colors: red, green, and blue
  27. camcorder
    a portable camera with the video recorder built into it
  28. camera chain
    camera and the associated electronic equipement consisting of the power supply, the sync generator, and the camera control unit
  29. camera control unit (CCU)
    equipement seperate from the actual camera that allows video operator to adjust color and brightness balance
  30. charge-coupled device (CCD)
    solid-state imaging device that translates the optical image into a video signal (called a chip)
  31. chrominance channel
    contains the RGB video signals or some combination thereof. also called color or c channel
  32. ENG/EFP camera
    highly portable, high-end self-contained camera for electronic field production
  33. fast lens
    a lens that permits a relatively great amount of light to pass through at its largest aperture (lowest f-stop number). Can be used in low-light conditions.
  34. focal length
    with the lens set at infinity, the distance from the iris to the plane where the picture is in focis. (measured in mm or inches)
  35. F-stop
    • scale on the lens, indicating the aperture
    • Larger f stop number=the smaller the aperture
    • Smaller the f stop number=the larger the aperture
  36. Iris
    Adjustable lens-opening mechanism
  37. luminance channel
    contains the black and white part of a video signal. Responsible for the sharpness of the picture
  38. slow lens
    a lens that permits a relatively small amount of light to pass through, requires higher level of light
  39. viewfinder
    monitor, small video screen on camera
  40. zoom lens
    variable focal length
  41. zoom range
    how much the focal length can be changed from a wide shot to a close-uo during a zoom
  42. Each video camera needs three basic elements
    • The lens
    • The imaging device
    • The viewfinder
  43. Is f2.0 a slow or fast lens?
    Fast IF it can't go below f4.5 it is quite slow
  44. HDV camcorders
    • - High quality lenses
    • - shaper, excellent definition
    • -16x9 aspect ratio
  45. arc
    to move the camera in a slightly curved dolly or truck
  46. calibrate the zoom lens
    to preset a zoom lens to keep in focus throughout the zoom
  47. cant
    to tilt the camera sideways
  48. crane
    to move the boom of the camera crane up or down. Also called boom
  49. Dolly
    to move the camera toward (dolly in) or away from (dollly out) the object
  50. jib arm
    a small camera crane that can be operated by the camera person
  51. mounting head
    a device that connects the camera to its support. Also called pan-and-tilt head
  52. pan
    to turn the camera horizontally
  53. pedestal
    to move the camera up or down
  54. shutter speed
    a camera control that reduces the blurring of bright, fast-moving objects. The higher the shutter speed the less blurring occurs but the more light is needed.
  55. studio pedestal
    a heavy camera dolly that permits raising and lowering the camera while on the air
  56. tilt
    to point the camera up or down
  57. tongue
    to move the broom with the camera from left to right or from right to left
  58. tripod
    a three-legged camera mount, Also called sticks.
  59. truck/ track
    to move the camera laterally by means of a mobile camera mount
  60. White Balance
    adjustments of the color circuits in the camera to produce white color in lighting of various color temperatures (relative reddish or bluishness of white light)
  61. zoom
    to change the focal length of the lens through the use of a zoom control while the camera remains stationary
  62. Don't expose the camera to the elements
    Leave the camera with care
  63. Use the lens cap
    use fully charged batteries
  64. verify the recording media
    Examine all connections
  65. Test the camera
    Set the switches
  66. Perform a white balance
    always capture audio
  67. Heed the warning signs
    Get in touch and in control: put on your head set to establish contact with the control room and video operator
  68. Tame the cables-postition the cable guards close enough to the floor to prevent the pedestal from rolling over the camera table
    test-zoom and focus-uncap camera check zoom and focus
  69. practice your moves
    move carefully
  70. don't jump the red light
    avoid nervous camera movements
  71. let the firector direct
    anticipate your next shot
  72. out all tools away properly
  73. Aspect Ratio
    the relationship of the width of the screen to its height 4x3 Standard Television, 16x9 high-definition television
  74. Field of view
    refers to how close the object seems to the viewer, or how much of the "field" or "scenery" in fron of you is in the shot
  75. 5 field of views
    • Extreme Long Shot
    • Long Shot
    • Medium Shot
    • Close-Up
    • Extreme Close up
  76. Cross Shot
    looks alternately at one or the other person, with the camera-near person completely out of the shot
  77. Vector
    directional screen force with varying strengths
  78. Graphic Vector
    created by lines or an arrangment of stationary objects that lead the eye in a general direction.
  79. Index Vectors
    these are created by something that points in a specific direction;arrow, one way street, someone looking or pointing
  80. Motion Vectors
    created by an obhect that is actually moving or is perceived to be moving, on the screen
  81. Composition
    Factors: subject placement, headroom and leadroom, and horizon line
  82. Subject Placement
    most stable and prominent picture area is screen-center
  83. Headroom/leadroom/noseroom
    head placement, moving object give it somewhere to go, give them somewhere to look
  84. Horizon line
    parallel to the bottom of the screen
  85. Psychological Closure
    Mentally filling in missing visual information that will lead to a complete and stable configuration
  86. z-axis
    indicates screen depth. Extends from camera lens to horizon
Card Set
Video Production
Chapter 3,4,5,6