
methodology
objective systematic rule governed observations (surveys and experiments). Evaluated by criteria of validity, reliability and generalizability.
posi: Use quantitative methods to remain detached from respondents

What are concepts and constructs?
 Concept: An idea that represents a class of objects (eg cats) or events
 (walking) or their properties (fast). Construct: a complex idea or
 concept formed from a synthesis of simpler ideas or concepts (concepts
 invented by scientists)

Quant and qual variables
Qualitative (or categorical) variables: variables whose values are discrete and designated by words. Quantitative variables: values come from a numerical continuum.

Predictor variables
variables that predict or explain other variables.

outcome variables
variables to be predicted or explained

Antecedent
presumed to casually precede predictor variables e.g. church predicts morality.

Intervening
(or mediating variables): variables that channel the effect of the predictor variable on the outcome variable (e.g. maybe church attendance > bible reading > morality).

Moderators
a variable that by itself may or may not predict and outcome variable changes the strength or direction of an existing correlation or effect

which axis predictor/outcome? what is the moderator
 predictor x axis, outcome y axis
 moderator major

linear relationship
the relationship b/w two variables.

Spurious
Extraneous third factor and neither variable involved in the correlation influenced the other.

How are items related to a scale, index, or composite measure of a variable?
Questions create a scale which is an index of composite measure of the construct, based on selfreports. The questions are items/indicators.

Nominal
classifying cases into categories. Tool or activity to measure an object which will be a variable, must be exhaustive and mutually exclusive (e.g. Sex: male/female).

Ordinal
classify cases into categories and then rank them (e.g. education level 1= high school, 2 bachelors, etc).

Interval
Ordinal measures + equal intervals (e.g. attitude toward marijuana use).

Ratio
interval measures + a meaningful (e.g. we know how much more $4 is to $1). Each level adds more info than the previous.

Reliability
whether or not we’re measuring something consistently (interchangeable w consistency).

Validity
whether or not we are measuring the variable that we aim to measure (accuracy)

three types of reliability
testretest, interitem and intercoder

testretest
Given the same group of respondents a test at two time points. And see whether scores at Time 1 correlate with scores at Time 2. Strong correlation indicates high reliability

Interitem reliability (internal consistency)
Whether the items in a scale correlate with each other? Cronbach’s alpha>= .6 acceptable, >= .7 satisfactory, >=.9 will be excellent.

Intercoder
Whether or not different human judges (coders) produce similar results by using the same procedure and instrument?Content analysis and nonverbal studies.

