1. methodology
    objective systematic rule governed observations (surveys and experiments). Evaluated by criteria of validity, reliability and generalizability.

    posi: Use quantitative methods to remain detached from respondents
  2. What are concepts and constructs?
    • Concept: An idea that represents a class of objects (eg cats) or events
    • (walking) or their properties (fast). Construct: a complex idea or
    • concept formed from a synthesis of simpler ideas or concepts (concepts
    • invented by scientists)
  3. Quant and qual variables
    Qualitative (or categorical) variables: variables whose values are discrete and designated by words. Quantitative variables: values come from a numerical continuum.
  4. Predictor variables
    variables that predict or explain other variables.
  5. outcome variables
    variables to be predicted or explained
  6. Antecedent
    presumed to casually precede predictor variables e.g. church predicts morality.
  7. Intervening
    (or mediating variables): variables that channel the effect of the predictor variable on the outcome variable (e.g. maybe church attendance -> bible reading -> morality).
  8. Moderators
    a variable that by itself may or may not predict and outcome variable- changes the strength or direction of an existing correlation or effect
  9. which axis predictor/outcome? what is the moderatorImage Upload 1
    • predictor x axis, outcome y axis
    • moderator major
  10. linear relationship
    the relationship b/w two variables.
  11. Spurious
    Extraneous third factor and neither variable involved in the correlation influenced the other.
  12. How are items related to a scale, index, or composite measure of a variable?
    Questions create a scale which is an index of composite measure of the construct, based on self-reports. The questions are items/indicators.
  13. Nominal
    classifying cases into categories. Tool or activity to measure an object which will be a variable, must be exhaustive and mutually exclusive (e.g. Sex: male/female).
  14. Ordinal
    classify cases into categories and then rank them (e.g. education level 1= high school, 2 bachelors, etc).
  15. Interval
    Ordinal measures + equal intervals (e.g. attitude toward marijuana use).
  16. Ratio
    interval measures + a meaningful (e.g. we know how much more $4 is to $1). Each level adds more info than the previous.
  17. Reliability
    whether or not we’re measuring something consistently (interchangeable w consistency).
  18. Validity
    whether or not we are measuring the variable that we aim to measure (accuracy)
  19. three types of reliability
    test-retest, inter-item and inter-coder
  20. test-retest
    Given the same group of respondents a test at two time points. And see whether scores at Time 1 correlate with scores at Time 2. Strong correlation indicates high reliability
  21. Inter-item reliability (internal consistency)
    Whether the items in a scale correlate with each other?- Cronbach’s alpha>= .6 acceptable, >= .7 satisfactory, >=.9 will be excellent.
  22. Inter-coder
    Whether or not different human judges (coders) produce similar results by using the same procedure and instrument?-Content analysis and nonverbal studies.
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