Lisette is excited about her new home in Rome. She has been given the opportunity to learn about a new culture, form new friendships, and capitalize on opportunities that were not available in her previous workplace based in Atlanta. In this scenario, Lisette is going through ________ as she adjusts to living in Rome.
The process of adjusting to a new culture is known as...
When marketers first introduced the personal digital assistant (PDA) to American consumers, they acted as ________ because the cultural impact of the product became widespread.
Agents of Change
The Uncertainty Avoidance Index measures the tolerance of uncertainty and ________ among members of a society.
The aesthetics of a culture are found in...
The arts, music, dance, and dress
On the basis of Hofstede's four dimensions, cultures with high Power Distance Index (PDI) scores tend to...
Feng shui is a Chinese ________, considered to be the process that links humans and the universe to ch'i, the energy that sustains life and flows through our bodies and surroundings, in and around our homes and workplaces.
Which technological innovation has had a great impact on the gender-based determination of responsibilities and roles?
Birth control techniques
________ in India is a social institution that influences the roles and status positions found within Indian society.
The caste system
________ pertains to societies in which people from birth onward are integrated into strong, cohesive groups.
According to anthropologist Edward T. Hall, culture is...
Which social institution introduces most innovations to society?
In the context of cultural values, which statements is true? ...
Countries that are high in individualism and low in uncertainty avoidance tend to be more innovative
________ is best defined as a responsible effort to learn from others' cultural ways in the quest for better solutions to a society's particular problems.
Modern medicine has thrived in the United States together with the use of herbal remedies from South America. This is an example of...
________ refers to a strategy that involves marketing products similar to ones already on the market, thereby minimizing resistance.
Nathan decided it would be best for his company to introduce a low-calorie drink product into the South American market that is similar to other products already in place in the country. He felt this would lead to less resistance on the part of the South American consumer and the products would sell well. What type of strategy is Nathan using? ...
Morrison Foods has decided to introduce a new line of turkey products to the American consumer. Turkey steaks resemble beefsteak in taste and are leaner and healthier for a variety of reasons. However, the company is concerned that the product will not be accepted in America. If Morrison Foods follows a strategy of ________, they are more likely to have a successful introduction of the new product.
________ refers to being attuned to the nuances of culture so that a new culture can be viewed objectively, evaluated, and appreciated.
Most traditional definitions of ________ center around the notion that it is the sum of the values, rituals, symbols, beliefs, and thought processes that are learned, shared by a group of people, and transmitted from generation to generation.
People from which cultures are more likely to have a general distrust of others (not those in their groups) because power is seen to rest with individuals and is coercive rather than legitimate? ....
cultures with a high Power Distance Index score
How has the advent of women joining the workforce in growing numbers for the past 30 years affected American culture?
a decrease in the influence of family on American culture
The first step in bringing about planned change in a society is to ...
determine which cultural factors conflict with an innovation.
The measure of the differences between language is known as linguistic...
One indicator of the narrowing ________ gap between the sexes is the fact that the majority of university students in the United States are women.
Jason is a marketing manager for a large breakfast cereal company. He knows that most people in China eat breakfast like everyone else in the world, but he also understands that they may not want the sugar-laden cereals his company is known for and he should consider promoting healthier cereal options instead. Jason is revealing cultural ________ as he makes his decision.
The adjective that best defines the market behavior of any country is ...
In some parts of the world, language is itself thought of as a social institution, often with political importance. Which country best exemplifies this statement?
A desert nation would not rely on agricultural crops to boost its economy. This shows how ________ can affect social culture.
Compared with other societal forces, how does the role of government influence social culture?
Governments influence thinking and behavior through the enforcement of a variety of laws affecting consumption and marketing behaviors.
Mae-Jun works at an overseas branch of her organization. She needs clarification about a project and approaches a senior manager hoping to get a good explanation. However, she is told that only the team leads are allowed to approach the senior managers and sent away. In this scenario, the organization is most likely to have a ________ score.
high Power Distance Index
What is true about Professor Jared Diamond's ideas regarding the influence of geography on history and cultural values?
Historically, innovations spread faster east to west than north to south.
The baby boom generation has affected consumption patterns around the world since it started and continues to do so today. This is one example of how ________ can be reflected in social institutions.
Innovations that are most readily accepted are those that ...
hold the greatest interest within the society and those that are least disruptive.
According to Edward Hall's comments on culture, which action could hurt companies and careers in foreign markets?
ignorance of cultural differences in the foreign market
Jessica is new to international marketing and assumes that if a country speaks a similar language as another country then both of those countries will also be interested in the same types of products and services. Jessica appears to be suffering from ...
an illusion of similarity.
In the context of cultural values, the ________ Index refers to the preference for behavior that promotes one's self-interest.
Which of the dimensions identified by Hofstede in his study of how cultures differ refers to the extent to which people try to control their desires and impulses?
What is a characteristic of culture?
It is the human-made part of human environment.
Rituals are patterns of behavior and interaction that are ...
learned and repeated.
What action is important for marketers to take in order to be effective in a foreign market?
learning to appreciate the intricacies of cultures different from their own
Selena works for a U.S.-based manufacturing company that wants to build a plant in Indonesia. Selena is concerned about the language barriers because she knows more than 300 languages are spoken throughout Indonesia. What is Selena's main concern?
Additional studies based on Geert Hofstede's original study of how cultures differ identified the fifth dimension known as ...
Which social institution that has replaced family time, do many people point to as having detrimental effects on society?
What is true of education and the literacy rate of a country?
Numerous studies indicate a direct link between the literacy rate of a country and its capability for rapid economic growth.
Next Energy is advocating the use of solar power to replace all petroleum-based energy sources. The company holds demonstrations to show how solar power could be used in all major petroleum-based products—automobiles, power sources, and heating and cooling. Next Energy is most likely employing a strategy of ________ change, a deliberate attempt to change the way we do things with respect to energy sources.
The strategy of ________ deliberately sets out to alter those aspects of the culture offering resistance to predetermined marketing goals.
A culture with a low ________ score is likely to have greater respect for equality.
Power Distance Index
In most cultures, the first social institution infants are exposed to outside the home is in the form of a ...
How has the use of birth control pills affected social institutions?
Schools are forced to address issues like abstinence and condom distribution.
In a culture with a high Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI), you are more likely to find that members ...
Seek absolute truth
Young children learn about social institutions from their families and when they go to school. This process of learning is called ...
Juanita grew up learning a great deal about culture from her school, the church, the media, and her family. This is an example of ...
According to Dutch management professor Geert Hofstede, culture can be referred to as the ...
"Software of the mind."
New cola alternatives (Mecca Cola, Muslim Up, Arab Cola, and ColaTurka) sprang up after the military conflicts in the Middle East in 2003. This is an example that shows how ...
specific events in history can influence consumer behavior.
How have culture-based superstitions affected the birthrate in Japan?
Superstitions have coincided with a decline in the birthrate in certain years.
Cultures which are low in Uncertainty Avoidance Index are more likely to ...
take a more empirical approach to understanding and knowledge.
James Day Hodgson, former U.S. ambassador to Japan, describes culture as a(n) ________, which according to him is tough to get through, but effort and patience could often lead to success.
In order for culture to exist it must be ...
Transmitted from one generation to the next.
Kendall works at a refugee camp in Haiti. She witnesses high levels of anxiety and stress and knows that everyone is concerned with security and rule following. Which aspect of Hofstede's dimensions does this reflect?
Uncertainty Avoidance Index
Unlike investors in Japan, many investors in the United States are willing to take the risk of a stock market investment. Which cultural dimension does this reflect?
Uncertainty Avoidance Index
Of the following countries, which requires the least number of school days in a year for elementary age students?
The introduction of a Westernized diet has caused many Japanese to become overweight. To counter this trend, the Japanese are buying low-calorie, low-fat foods to help shed excess weight and are flocking to health clubs. This scenario best exemplifies ________ change.
What are the five elements of culture?
Value, rituals, symbols, beliefs, thought processes
Based on the metaphor for Richard Nisbett's views involving Confucius's worthy picture, what is his analysis regarding the thought process or perceptual process of Westerners?
Westerners can provide great details about central figures but see relatively little in the background.
Academic studies of the causes and consequences of bribery, conducted by Transparency International (TI), indicate corruption is greater in:
A. high income nations
B. democratic rather than communist countries
C. countries with high individualism
D. countries with low Power Distance Index
E. collectivistic nations
E: collectivistic nations
According to Lester Thurow, a(n) _____ form of capitalism is practiced in Japan and Germany typified by cooperation among government, management, and labor.
According to Lester Thurow, in the British-American "individualistic" kind of capitalism relationships among government, management, and labor in business systems are _____.
According to Max Weber, at least part of the standard of living in the United States today can be attributed to the:
A. hard-working Protestant ethic
B. artificially low price of gasoline
C. almost complete penetration of the Internet
D. status equalization by the business class
E. slave-labor that formed the basis for early industry
A: hard-working Protestant ethic
According to the high-context/low-context continuum identified by Edward T. Hall, communication in a low-context culture depends on:
A. the context
B. who says it
C. when it is said
D. how it is said
E. the verbal expression
E: the verbal expression
Adam Smith in his Wealth of Nations stated, "By pursuing his own interest he frequently promotes that of the society more effectually than when he really intended to promote it." What behavior does this notion attempt to justify?
_____ are the business customs and expectations that must be met and conformed to or avoided if relationships are to be successful.
A. Cultural exclusives
B. Business electives
C. Global products
D. Business axioms
E. Cultural imperatives
E: Cultural imperatives
As businesses grow and professional management develops, there is a shift toward:
A. centralized group decision making
B. decentralized management decision making
C. centralized decision making
D. top-level management decision making
E. experimental decision making
B: decentralized management decision making
Betty Roberts became an embarrassment to her company when she joked about the ruling monarchy in England in front of a group of visiting English businesspeople. She should have known that political ridicule by a foreigner is rarely accepted. Ms. Roberts has violated what is known as a cultural _____.
Business customs can be grouped into: ...
A. rigid, flexible, and negotiables
B. internals, externals, and consensual customs
C. imperatives, electives, and exclusives
D. national, foreign, and international
C: imperatives, electives, and exclusives
Business customs in which an outsider must not participate are called _____.
Business customs that must be recognized and accommodated are called _____.
Business customs to which adaptation is helpful but not necessary are called _____.
A characteristic of committee decision making is that it is:
A. found in small businesses
B. done to please important family members
C. based on rank and hierarchy
D. rarely employed in Asian countries
E. by group or consensus
E: by group or consensus
Companies in _____ countries have a strong paternalistic orientation, and assume that individuals will work for one company for the majority of their lives.
A. more hierarchical
B. more egalitarian
C. high Power Distance Index
D. low Uncertainty Avoidance Index
E. low in individualism
A: more hierarchical
A culture that is high context, has collectivism, high power distance, and uses polychronic time is _____.
A culture that is low context, individualistic, low power distance, and uses monochromic time is _____.
The finance minister of a developing country demands a heavy payment for approval of a multi-million dollar contract with a foreign company. This practice would be called _____.
A firm whose marketing orientation is based on the belief that consumers and businesses alike will not buy enough without prodding is _____ oriented.
France is higher on Hofstede's Power Distance Index (PDI) than the United States and formality still reigns in France. Which of the following American business practices would be most unacceptable to the French?
A. Using threats during business meetings
B. Interacting with members lower in rank
C. Showing impatience at business negotiations
D. Using first names in business encounters
E. Conducting business over dinner or lunch
D: Using first names in business encounters
Fredrick Keeble, an American manager, took his Swiss client out for a traditional American dinner. The client did not seem to enjoy the food and left most of it untouched. After dinner, he asked his client if he had enjoyed the dinner. Which of the following responses would indicate that the client comes from a low-context culture?
B. No, I did not like the food
_____ generally involves giving large sums of money—frequently not properly accounted for—designed to entice an official to commit an illegal act on behalf of the one offering the bribe.
In _____ decision making, participation by middle management tends to be deemphasized.
C. top-level management
In _____ decision making, title or position generally takes precedence over the individual holding the job.
In the context of business ethics, many people in sub-Saharan Africa view Western _____ as a kind of exploitation that prevents treatment of AIDS for millions.
B. intellectual property laws
In the context of business ethics, which of the following factors kept the American economy afloat at the turn of the century?
D. rampant consumerism
In the context of management objectives and aspirations, which of the following is true of an employee's personal life?
A. To the Japanese, personal life is company life
_____ involves a relatively small sum of cash, a gift, or a service that is intended to facilitate or expedite the normal, lawful performance of a duty by an official.
_____ is more dominant in high-context cultures, where the completion of a human transaction is emphasized more than holding to schedules.
E. Polychronic time
_____ is probably the most common mistake of North Americans attempting to trade in the Middle East.
Kan is a customer relations manager with a leading multinational firm. He has managed various operations and deals with numerous domestic and international clients everyday. Despite his hectic schedule, Kan never cuts a meeting short with anyone and frequently postpones subsequent meetings in order to devote ample time to each of his clients. Which of the following countries is he most probably from?
A manager hires an agent to obtain a license to build a warehouse in an industrial district. The agent was caught offering a bribe to a government official for issue of the license. Which of the following describes the manager's liabilities?
C. The manager is liable if he was aware of the fact that part of the agent's fee would be used as a bribe.
The notion that _____ is crucial for efficiency, improvement, and regeneration is fundamental to Western management practices.
_____ occurs when payments are extracted under duress by someone in authority from a person seeking only what he or she is lawfully entitled to.
People in Brazil describe themselves as late arrivers, allow greater flexibility in defining early and late, are less concerned about being late, and are more likely to blame external factors for their lateness. Which system of time do the Brazilian people most likely operate on?
B. Polychronic time
The recognition of U.S. corporations as entities that have rules and continuity of existence and are separate, vital social institutions can result in:
A. feelings of obligation among employees to serve the company
Research has shown that commitment of workers to their companies tended to be higher in countries:
E. higher in individualism and lower in power distance
Simon Peters, a senior manager at Celise Export Logistics, goes for a meeting in France to negotiate a deal with the company's French partners. He dresses casually in a t-shirt and jeans. His French counterparts call off the meeting and accuse him of taking a casual attitude toward negotiations. In the context of this scenario, dressing formally during business meetings is probably a cultural _____ for the French.
There is a very strong belief in the United States that business decisions must be supported and based on accurate and relevant information. Which of the following best describes this approach?
D. Objective analysis
Western cultures like most North Americans, Swiss, Germans, and Scandinavians tend to concentrate on one thing at a time and are typified by _____ time.
When compared to people operating on P-time, people operating on M-time:
A. tend to concentrate on one thing at a time.
Which aspect of Japanese culture, predicted by many to favor bribery, makes Japan's success in reducing corruption more remarkable?
Which of the following aspects of communication is more important in a low-context culture?
A. explicit communication
Which of the following best explains the low percentage of women chosen for international assignments in the United States?
E. There is a wide spread belief that roles of women in male-dominated societies precludes women from being successful in these societies.
Which of the following could be the least acceptable behavior in a business setting, especially in a cross-cultural scenario?
A. correcting someone in public
Which of the following countries is more likely to exhibit higher levels of bribery?
D. nations with a communist past
Which of the following ethical principles tries to optimize the "common good" or benefits of all constituencies?
C. utilitarian ethics
Which of the following forms of business decision making is predominant in most Asian countries?
Which of the following is a criterion for adaptation when dealing with individuals, firms, or authorities in foreign countries?
Which of the following is consistent with the American view of the independent enterprise?
B. A corporation is an entity that has rules and continuity of existence.
Which of the following is the best means of solving the problem of language on the Internet?
E. Having country-specific websites so that everyone can communicate in their own language.
Which of the following is true of adaptation in international marketing?
A. Willingness to adapt is a crucial attitude in international marketing.
B. Adaptation requires business executives to forsake their ways and change to local customs.
C. Mere tolerance of alien cultures is sufficient in international marketing.
D. Open tolerance is considered to be an unnecessary concession to foreign cultures.
E. Empathy for foreign cultures may lead to cultural discord.
A. Willingness to adapt is a crucial attitude in international marketing.
Which of the following is true of P-time and M-time?
C. As global markets expand, more businesspeople from P-time cultures are adapting to M-time.
Which of the following is true of the business community's view about payoffs?
E. Many global competitors perceive payoffs as a necessary means to accomplish business goals.
Which of the following is true of the effect of differences in culture in business negotiations?
E. The risk of misunderstanding increases when negotiating with someone from a different culture.
Which of the following is true of the findings of Transparency International's Corruption Perception Index?
B. Higher levels of bribery have been found in low-income nations.
Which of the following views is consistent with normative U.S. cultural concepts?
D. Independent enterprise is an instrument for social action.
Which of the following would most likely be characterized as being an imperative business custom in many cultures?
D. establishing friendships
Which organization conducts an international survey of businesspeople, political analysts, and the general public on corruption and compiles the Corruption Perception Index (CPI)?
B. Transparency International (TI)
Which philosophy of U.S. management recognizes that people influence the future to a large extent and that they control their own fates?