PHYS-1501 Organization of the Human Body

  1. Name 4 TYPES of TISSUE
    • 1. Epithelial
    • 2. Connective
    • 3. Muscular
    • 4. Nervous
  2. List the FUNCTION(S) of EPITHELIAL tissue
    • 1. covers body surfaces
    • 2. lines body cavities
  3. List the FUNCTION(S) of CONNECTIVE tissue
    • 1. binds body parts
    • 2. supports body parts
  4. List the FUNCTION(S) of MUSCULAR tissue
    1. Movement (of body and parts)
  5. List the FUNCTION(S) of NERVOUS tissue
    • 1. recieves stimuli
    • 2. processes information (stimulus)
    • 3. conducts nerve impulses
  6. Describe SQUAMOUS
    flat & thin (like a scale)
  7. Describe SIMPLE (in regards to epithelium cell types)
    consisting of a single layer
  8. Describe STRATIFIED (in regards to epithelium cell types)
    layered
  9. Describe CUBOIDAL (in regards to epithelium cell types)
    boxy, cube shaped
  10. Describe COMLUMNAR (in regards to epithelium cell types)
    long and thin, shaped like a column
  11. Describe PSEUDOSTRATIFIED (in regards to epithelium cell types)
    APPEARS to be layered, but is NOT
  12. Describe BASEMENT MEMBRANE (in regards to epithelium cell types)
    (usually) joins epithelium to underlying connective tissue
  13. Describe TRANSITIONAL (in regards to epithelium cell types)
    stretchable tissue that forms rugae
  14. Define CILIATED
    hairlike in nature
  15. Define RUGAE
    folds
  16. When an EPITHELIUM SECRETES a product its said to be...
    glandular
  17. Where does an ENDOCRINE GLAND secrete their products?
    into the blood stream
  18. EXOCRINE GLANDS secrete their products via...
    ducts
  19. Is the PANCREAS endocrine or exocrine?
    it is both (insulin & digestive juices)
  20. List some places you can expect to find SIMPLE SQUAMOUS epithelium
    • lining of the:
    • -lungs (airsacs)
    • -heart
    • -blood vessels
    • -lymphatic vessels
  21. List some places you can expect to find CILIATED SIMPLE COLUMNAR epithelium
    • bronchi
    • uterine tubes
    • uterus
  22. List some places you can expect to find NONCILIATED SIMPLE COLUMNAR epithelium
    • digestive tract
    • bladder
  23. List some places you can expect to find SIMPLE CUBOIDAL epithelium
    • lining the:
    • -kidney tubules
    • -oviducts
    • -ducts and secretory portions of small glands
  24. List some places you can expect to find PSEUDOSTRATIFIED SQUAMOUS epithelium
    • lining the trachea
    • most of the upper respiratory tract
  25. List some places you can expect to find STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS epithelium
    • skin
    • lining the:
    • -nose
    • -mouth
    • -esophagus
    • -anal canal
    • -vagina
  26. List some places you can expect to find STRATIFIED CUBOIDAL epithelium
    • sweat glands
    • salivary glands
    • mammary glands
  27. List some places you can expect to find STRATIFIED COLUMNAR epithelium
    • male urethra
    • ducts of some glands
  28. List some places you can expect to find TRANSITIONAL (STRATIFIED) SQUAMOUS epithelium
    • urinary bladder
    • urethra
    • ureters
  29. List the CONNECTIVE TISSUE TYPES
    • 1. loose fibrous CT
    • 2. dense fibrous CT
    • 3. adipose CT
    • 4. reticular CT
    • 5. cartilage
    • 6. bone
    • 7. blood
  30. Describe COLLAGEN FIBERS
    flexible and strong due to the collagen protein they contain
  31. Describe RETICULAR FIBERS
    very thin collagen fibers that are highly branched and form delicate supporting networks
  32. Describe ELASTIC FIBERS
    contains elastin proteins making them weaker than collagen fibers, but more elastic
  33. What is the FUNCTION of LOOSE FIBROUS CT?
    supports and binds

    • supports:
    • -epitheliium
    • -many internal organs

    • allows:
    • -organs to expand
  34. List some places you can expect to find LOOSE FIBROUS CT
    • lungs
    • arteries
    • urinary bladder
  35. What is the FUNCTION of SIMPLE SQUAMOUS epithelium?
    • allows material to pass through
    • -diffusion
    • -filtration

    secretes lubricating substances
  36. What is the FUNCTION of SIMPLE CUBOIDAL epithelium?
    • secretes
    • absorbs
  37. What is the FUNCTION of SIMPLE COUMNAR epithelium?
    • absorbs
    • secretes:
    • -mucus
    • -enzymes
  38. What is the FUNCTION of PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR epithelium?
    secretes mucus

    • ciliated tissue:
    • moves mucus
  39. What is the FUNCTION of STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS epithelium?
    protects against abrasion
  40. What is the FUNCTION of STRATIFIED CUBOIDAL epithelium?
    protects
  41. What is the FUNCTION of STRATIFIED COLUMNAR epithelium?
    • secretes
    • protects
  42. What is the FUNCTION of TRANSITIONAL epithelium?
    • allows urinary organs to:
    • -expand
    • -stretch
  43. What is the FUNCTION of DENSE FIBROUS CT?
    • connect muscle to bone (tendons)
    • connect bones to other bones (ligaments)
  44. List some places you can expect to find DENSE FIBROUS CT
    • tendons
    • ligaments
  45. What is the FUNCTION of ADIPOSE CT?
    • insulation
    • cushion
    • store fat
  46. List some places you can expect to find ADIPOSE CT
    • beneath skin
    • around:
    • -heart
    • -other organs
  47. What is the FUNCTION of RETICULAR CT?
    forms the supporting network of limphoid tisse
  48. List some places you can expect to find RETICULAR CT
    • lymph nodes
    • spleen
    • thuymus gland
    • bone marrow
  49. What is the FUNCTION of CARTILAGE (CT)?
    allows bones to slide against each other in joints
  50. List the 3 TYPES of CARTILAGE (CT)
    • hyaline
    • elastic
    • fibrocartilage
  51. List some places you can expect to find HYALINE CARTILAGE (CT)
    • nose
    • ends of long bones
    • ribs
    • respiratory passage
    • fetal skeleton
  52. List some places you can expect to find ELASTIC CARTILAGE (CT)
    outer ear
  53. List some places you can expect to find FIBROCARTILAGE (CT)
    • between structures that can withstand tension and pressure
    • (i.e. pads between vertebrae, menisci)
  54. What is the FUNCTION of BONE (CT)?
    • support
    • blood cell production
    • protect organs
  55. What type of cell is is BONE (CT) made of?
    osteocytes
  56. List the TYPES (not classification) of BONE (CT)
    • compact
    • spongy
  57. List a place you can expect to find COMPACT BONE (CT)?
    shaft of long bones (i.e. femur)
  58. List a place you can expect to find COMPACT BONE (CT)?
    the ends of long bones
  59. What does BLOOD (CT) consist of?
    • plasma (liquid part of blood)
    • 3 types of cells (erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes)
  60. PLASMA makes up what PERCENT of BLOOD?
    about 55%
  61. 3 types of CELLS makes up what PERCENT of BLOOD?
    about 45%
  62. What is another name for RED BLOOD CELLS?
    erythrocytes
  63. What is another name for WHITE BLOOD CELLS?
    leukocytes
  64. What is another name for PLATELETS?
    thrombocytes
  65. What is the FUNCTION of ERYTHROCYTES?
    transport oxygen
  66. What is the FUNCTION of LEUKOCYTES?
    • fight infection (immunity)
    • some are phagocytic
    • some produce antibodies
  67. What is the FUNCTION of THROMBOCYTES?
    blood clotting
  68. List the TYPES of MUSCLE TISSUE
    • skeletal
    • smooth (visceral)
    • cardiac
  69. Which MUSCLE TYPE has MULTIPLE NUCLEI?
    skeletal
  70. Which MUSCLE TYPE has INTERCALCULATED DISKS?
    cardiac
  71. Where is CARDIAC MUSCLE FOUND?
    only in the walls of the heart
  72. Which MUSCLE TYPE(S) is/are STRIATED?
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
  73. Which MUSCLE TYPE is NOT STRIATED?
    smooth
  74. Where is SMOOTH MUSCLE FOUND?
    • blood vessels
    • walls of the digestive tract
    • other organs
  75. Where is SKELETAL MUSCLE FOUND?
    attached to bones via tendons
  76. Which is MUSCLE CELLS are SPINDLE SHAPED?
    smooth
  77. What is the FUNCTION of SKELETAL MUSCLE?
    voluntary movement
  78. What is the FUNCTION of SMOOTH MUSCLE?
    • involuntary movement
    • move substances in lumens of the body
  79. What is the FUNCTION of CARDIAC MUSCLE?
    pump blood
  80. How are the FIBERS of CARDIAC MUSCLE BOUND?
    intercalated disks
  81. list the CELL TYPES of NERVOUS TISSUE
    • neurons
    • neruoglia
  82. What is the FUNCTION of NEURONS?
    • important in neural communication
    • most of the unique functions of NS (i.e. sensing, thinking, remembering, controlling muscle, regulating glandular secretions)
  83. What is the FUNCTION of NEUROGLIA?
    • support neurons
    • nourish neurons
    • maintain homeostasis in intersticial fluid bathing neurons
  84. What are the FUNCTIONS of NERVOUS TISSUE?
    • sensory input
    • motor output
    • integration of data
  85. What are the PARTS of a NEURON?
    • cell body
    • dendrite
    • axon
  86. What is the FUNCTION of the CELL BODY?
    • houses:
    • -the nucleus of the neuron
    • -major concentration of the neuron's cytoplasm
  87. What is the FUNCTION of the DENDRITE?
    conducts signals toward the cell body
  88. What is the FUNCTION of the AXON?
    conducts signals away the cell body
  89. What is a NERVE?
    long axons and their myelin sheaths located outside the brain and spinal cord
  90. List the TYPES of NEUROGLIA CELLS
    • microglia
    • astorcytes
    • oligodendrocytes
    • ependymal
  91. What is the FUNCTION of the NEUROGLIA CELLS?
    support and nourish neurons
  92. What is the FUNCTION of the MICROGLIA?
    engulf bacterial and cellular debris
  93. What is the FUNCTION of the ASTROCYTES?
    • provide nutrients
    • produce glia (hormone) [thought to prevent Parkinson disease]
  94. What is the FUNCTION of the OLIGODENDROCYTES?
    form myelin sheath
  95. What is the FUNCTION of the EPENDYMAL CELLS?
    line the fluid-filled space in the brain and spinal cord
  96. List the 2 MAIN CAVITIES of the HUMAN BODY
    • ventral cavity
    • dorsal cavity
  97. Which OTHER CAVITIES make up the VENTRAL CAVITY?
    • throacic
    • abdominal
    • pelvic
  98. Which OTHER CAVITIES make up the DORSAL CAVITY?
    • cranial cavity
    • spinal cavity
  99. The THORACIC CAVITY houses which structure(s)?
    • lungs
    • heart
  100. The ABDOMINAL CAVITY houses which structure(s)?
    • stomach
    • liver
    • large intestine
    • small intestine
    • spleen
    • pancreas
  101. The PELVIC CAVITY houses which structure(s)?
    • rectum
    • urinary bladder
    • internal reproductive organs
    • sigmoid colon (lower part of the large intestine)
  102. Which VENTRAL CAVITY is DIVIDED by the DIAPHRAGM?
    abdominal
  103. The CRANIAL CAVITY houses which structure(s)?
    brain
  104. The SPINAL CAVITY houses which structure(s)?
    spinal cord
  105. List the 4 BODY MEMBRANES
    • mucus
    • serous
    • synovial
    • meninges
  106. What is the FUNCTION of the 4 BODY MEMBRANES?
    • line:
    • -cavites
    • -internal spaces of organs
    • -tubes that open to outside
  107. What is the FUNCTION of a GOBLET CELL?
    secrete mucus to protect against viral and bacterial invasion
  108. List the places you can expect to find MUCUS MEMBRANES
    • lining the tubes of the:
    • -digestive system
    • -respiratory system
    • -urinary system
    • -reproductive system
  109. List the places you can expect to find SEROUS MEMBRANES
    • lining the:
    • -theracic cavity
    • -abdominal cavity
    • covering organs contained in:
    • -theracic cavity
    • -abdominal cavity
  110. What are the SPECIFIC NAMES given to the SEROUS MEMBRANE?
    • plerua
    • pericardium
    • peritoneum
  111. What is the FUNCTION of the SEROUS MEMBRANE?
    secrete watery fluid (for self-lubrication and to hinder spread of infection)
  112. Where is the PLEURA (SEROUS MEMBRANE) LOCATED?
    • lining the throacic cavity
    • covering the lungs
  113. Where is the PERICARDIUM (SEROUS MEMBRANE) LOCATED?
    covering the heart
  114. Where is the PERITONEUM (SEROUS MEMBRANE) LOCATED?
    • lining the abdominal cavity
    • covering the organs of the abdominal cavity
  115. What is a DOUBLE LAYER of PERITONEUM called?
    mesentery
  116. What is a MESENTERY?
    a double layer of peritoneum
  117. What is the FUNCTION of the a MESENTERY?
    • support abdominal organs
    • attaches abdominal organs to the abdominal wall
  118. What is an INFECTION of the PERITONEUM called?
    peritonitis
  119. What is PERITONITIS?
    and in fection of the peritoneum
  120. Where is the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE LOCATED?
    lining freely movable joints
  121. What is the FUNCTION of SYNOVIAL MEMBRANES?
    • secretes synovial fluid (to)
    • lubricate the cartilage (at the end of bones)
  122. Where are the MENINGES LOCATED?
    • in the dorsal cavity
    • surrounding the brain
    • surrounding the spinal cord
  123. What is the FUNCTION of the MENINGIES?
    protection (of the brain and spinal cord)
  124. List the ELEVEN (11) BODY SYSTEMS
    • integumentary
    • cardiovascular
    • lymphatic
    • digestive
    • respriatory
    • urinary
    • skeletal
    • muscular
    • nervous
    • endocrine
    • reproductive
  125. List the FUNCTION(S) of the INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
    • protect the body
    • cover the body
    • control body temperature
  126. List the FUNCTION(S) of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
    • transport:
    • -blood
    • -nutrients
    • -gasses
    • -wastes
    • defends against disease
    • control homeostatis
  127. List the FUNCTION(S) of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
    • defense against infection(s)
    • absorb fats
    • control fluid balance
  128. List the FUNCTION(S) of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
    • ingest food
    • digest food
    • absorb nutrients
    • eliminate wastes
  129. List the FUNCTION(S) of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
    • exchange gases
    • control pH balance
  130. List the FUNCTION(S) of the URINARY SYSTEM
    • excrete metabolic wastes
    • control fluid balance
    • control pH balance
  131. List the FUNCTION(S) of the SKELETAL SYSTEM
    • supports the body
    • protects the body
    • move the body
    • store minerals
    • produce blood cells
  132. List the FUNCTION(S) of the MUSCULAR SYSTEM
    • maintain posture
    • moves body
    • moves internal organs
    • heat production
  133. List the FUNCTION(S) of the NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • orang system coordination
    • stransmit nerve impulses
  134. List the FUNCTION(S) of the ENDORCRINE SYSTEM
    • produce hormones
    • respond to stress
    • regulate metavolism
    • reproduction
  135. List the FUNCTION(S) of the REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
    • produce sex hormones
    • in females:
    • give birth to offspring
    • nurture offspring
    • in males:
    • produce gametes
    • transport gametes
  136. List the COMPONENT(S) of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
    skin
  137. List the COMPONENTS of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
    • heart
    • blood vessels
  138. List the COMPONENTS of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
    • spleen
    • lymph notes
  139. List the COMPONENTS of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
    • liver
    • gall bladder
  140. List the COMPONENTS of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
    • nose
    • trachea
    • bronchi
    • alveoli sacs
    • lungs
  141. List the COMPONENTS of the NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • brain
    • spinal cord
    • nerves
  142. List the COMPONENTS of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
    • endocrine glands:
    • -pituitary
    • -thyroid
    • -parathyroid
    • -pineal
    • -adrenal
    • -pancreas
    • -ovaries (females)
    • -testes (males)
  143. List the COMPONENTS of the REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM in MALES
    • testes
    • epididymis
    • urethra
    • penis
  144. List the COMPONENTS of the REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM in FEMALES
    • ovaries
    • fallopian tubes
    • uterus
    • cervix
    • vagina
  145. What are the LAYERS of HUMAN SKIN?
    • epidermis
    • dermis
    • subcutaneous layer
  146. Is the EPIDERMIS the inner or outer layer?
    outer
  147. Is the DERMIS the inner or outer layer?
    inner
  148. Where is the SUBCUTANEOUS LAYER LOCATED?
    deep to the dermis
  149. The EPIDERMIS is made of which TYPE of EPITHLIAL TISSUE?
    stratified suamous epithelium
  150. The DERMIS contains collagen and elastic fibers. TRUE or FALSE
    true
  151. Which cells produce PIGMENTS called MELANIN?
    melanocytes
  152. Where are MELANOCYTES LOCATED?
    in the epidermis
  153. Which LAYER of the SKIN contains the BLOOD VESSELS?
    dermis
  154. Which LAYER of the SKIN is composed of ADIPOSE TISSUE?
    subcutaneous layer
  155. What is KERATIN?
    a water-proof protein produced by the epidermis
Author
Weston
ID
353437
Card Set
PHYS-1501 Organization of the Human Body
Description
Anatomical organization of the Human Body
Updated