Anatomy Overview for Comp 2

  1. how does erection wrk?
    • emissary veins is compressed clsing the arteriovenous anastomoses 
    • trabecular smooth muscle inside of corpus cavernosum 
    • coiled helicine arteries coming from the deep artery of the enis relax and fill with blood.
    • the ischiocavernosum  and bulbospongiousum contract via somatic innervation  to further compress veins of the corpora cavernosa
  2. erection is under what nerve control?
    parasympathetic innervation
  3. what nerves does the pudendal nerve some from
  4. what are the branches of the pudendal nerve
    • Dorsal nerve of penis
    • inferior rectal nerve
    • perineal nerve which creates the posterior scrotal nerves
  5. what are the contents of the spermatic cord?
    • the ductus deferens
    • testicular artery
    • pampiniform plexus of veins
    • genitofemoral nerve
    • lympathatics
  6. what scrotal layer correspond with the internal oblique
    creamaster muscle
  7. what abdominal layer corresponds with the tunica vaginalis ( visceral and parietal)
  8. what scrotal layer corresponds with the transversus abdominis ?
  9. what scrotal layer corresponds with the transversalis fascia
    internal spermatic fascia
  10. what ab layer corresponds with the internal spermatic fascia
    the transversalis fascia
  11. what scrotal layer is the scarpa's fascia
    dartos fascia
  12. describe the mechanism of mictricion
    • strecth receptors are activated by the strecthing of the smooth muscle  ( detrusor m.) of the bladder. stretch is sent to the CNs via sensory neuron
    • 2. parasympathetics travel back to the bladdder  ans synaopse causing detrusor muscle to contract and the internal sphincter is passively opened 
    • - motor neuron from CNS voluntarily determines if and when external spinchter of the bladder opens
  13. what part of the male reprodutive sytem add the most volume tot he sperm
  14. the greater vestibular gland is analogus to which male structure
    the bulbourethral glans
  15. the uterus is analogus ot which male structure
    the prostate
  16. the scrotal ligament/gubernaculum is men is analogus to which female structure
    the round ligament and the varian ligamenet
  17. the corpus spongiousum in men is analogus to which femal structure
    the bulb of the vestible
  18. the corpus cavernosumis analogous to which female structure
    the crus, body , and glans of the clitoris
  19. the corpus spongiosum is analogus to which female structure
    bulb of the vestible
  20. the uterus is alnalogus to which female structure
    the prostatic utricle
  21. the greater vestibular glands are also known as
    bartholin glans
  22. the testes of the male are aalogus to which female struct
    the ovaries
  23. the prostate is analogous to which female structure
    the parauretheral gland
  24. the paraurethral gland is also known as
    Skene's gland
  25. what is the ishioanal fossa
    space filled with fat lateral to the anal canal and just below the pelvic diaphragm
  26. what important is lateral to the ischioanal fossa
    teh pudendal canal
  27. how is the ischioanal canal of men and women different?
    male have more fat than women because of the expansion of the vagina and the anus
  28. what are the step of defecation
    • stretch receptors in the sigmoid colon anf rectum send sensory signals to the CNS
    • 2.Parasympathetic motor stimulate the rectum to contract and relax the internal anal sphincter
    • 3. CNs send somatic motos signal when the person wants to voluntarily open the external anal sphincter
  29. unde what control is defecation
    parasympathetic for pooping
  30. what is the vessesls above the pecinate line of the anal canal
    • aterial from the IMA
    • Venus from teh Pportal 
    • nerves are visceral motor both symp and parasymp mixed 
    • lymph is internal illiac mnodes
  31. what is the vessesls blow the pecinate line of the anal canal
    • artery from internal illian 
    • veins from caval venous sytem
    • lymph from superficial inguinal
    • nerve somotic motor and sensory
  32. what are the surfaces of the heart
    • diaphragmatic ( inferior)
    • sternocostal  (anterior)
    • right and left pulmonary
  33. conus aterious
    • the smooth walled connection btwn the right ventricule and pulmonary trunck ( outflow track)
    • it provides support for the pulmonary trunk and origin and the serves as a support structure for the pulmonary valve
  34. anterior mediastinum boundaries and contents
    • the space in btwn the sternum and the peericardium 
    • contains parts of the thymus
    • internal thoraci arteries and branches 
    • lymphathics andlymph nodes
    • sternopericardial ligamnet
  35. posterior mediastinum contents
    • esophagus 
    • vagus nerves
    • azygos system of veins
    • thoracic duct
    • thoracic aorta
  36. what vertebral bodies does the posterior mediastinum lay infront of
  37. what structures does the middle medisstinum contain
    the heart the root of the great vessels and the pericardium
  38. what structures pass through more than one mediastinum division
    • the esopahgus 
    • vagus nerve
    • phrenic nerve
    • thoracic duct
  39. what are the contents of the superior mediastinum
    • the trachae
    • great vessels
    • trachea 
    • esophagus 
    • thoracic duct
  40. where does the bifurcation of the trahea happen
    the sternal angle
  41. the round ligament of the liver is a remnant of?
    the umbilical vein
  42. the ligamentum venousum is a remnant of
    the ductus venosum
  43. what is the porta hepatis
    • the fissure running transversly on the underside of the lier that allow for the passage of many of the heptic vessels except the hepative veinsnand hepatic ducts
    • it ends ont he posterio side of the right lobe
  44. what does the porta hepatis do
    attached the liver to the superior portion of the duodenum via the hepatoduodenal ligament
  45. where is the ligamentum venosum located
    between the caudate lobe and the left lobe of the liver
  46. what structure is the qudarte lobe close to
    • the gall bladder
    • like the qute cgallbladder witht he stones
  47. how many anatomical lobes of the liver are there?
    • l,r,q,c
  48. what is the order of the last part of the large instestine starting from the descending colon
    • desce. colon
    • sigmoid colon
    • rectum
    • anal canal
    • internal anal sphincter
    • anus
  49. anal canal muscle
    external anal sphincter surrounds and adheres to the anus at the lower margin of the anal canal
  50. how does fluid move out of the kindey
    renal pyramid> renal papilla>minor caylx>major cylax>renal pelvis> urether
  51. what deos the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery supply
    the head of the pancreas. it does inferior
  52. what is the most proximal branch of the superior mesenteric artery
    the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery
  53. from what Vt level does the celiac artery arise from
  54. what are the two attachedments for the levator ani
    • the tendonous arch of the levator ani 
    • the anococcygeal ligament
  55. inferior phrenic artery
    • come off of the ab aorta
    • supply the ab esophaus, suprrenal glands, and inferior part of the diapragm
  56. what are the four bracnhes that the splanic artery gives off
    • short gastric
    • dorsal pancreatic artery
    • great pencreatic
    • artery to tail of pacreas
    • left gastroomental artery
  57. anococcygeal ligament
    connects the levator ani to the coccygeal
  58. tendonous arch
    connect levator ani to the pubis and ischium
  59. the greater sciatic notch start and end
    starts at PSIS ends at the ishial spine
  60. femoral nerve innervated
    anterior of thigh and illiopsas and illiacus
  61. obturator nerve innnervated
    medial compartmetn of the thigh
  62. psoas major acton
    flexes the thigh at hip joint and flexes the VT
  63. what is the orign of the middle suprarenal artery
    the abdominal aorta
  64. what is the orign of the inferior suprarenal artery
    comes from the renal artery
  65. what is the orign of the superior suprarenal artery
    the infrior phrenic artery
  66. what is the origin of the superficial epigastric artery
    femoral artery
  67. what does the superfiscial epigastric supply?
    the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the inguinal regon and the lower anterior ab wall
  68. what are the attachement of the hemiazygos
  69. diaphragm attchements
    • 6-12
    • medial L1-L3 and lateral arcuate ligaments (L1-L2)
    • xiphoid process
    • central tendon
  70. what are the openings in the diaphragm use mneumonic
    • In vegas I ate 
    • 10 eggs
    • at 12
  71. the medial arcuate ligament
    • attached to the psoas
    • at L1-L2
  72. the lateral arcuate ligament
    • anterior to the ql
    • the anterior rami of the 12th rib and the subcostal muscles pass through the gaps formed by this bilateral ligament
  73. the small cardiac vein travels with
    the marginal artery
  74. what does the iliolumbar give blood supply to
    the quadratus lumburum, the psoas major, and the illiacus
  75. where does the superior gluteal leave the pelvis
    through the greater sciatic foramen
  76. what ar some distinguishing feature of the superior gluteal artery
    • comes off of the anterior trunk 
    • travel s in between the lumbosacral tunk and S1
    • usually big in size
  77. what does the lateral sacrtal artery supply?
    the sacrum, coccyx and the VT canal
  78. where does the lateral sacral artery travel through
    the sacral formina
  79. where does the inferior luteal travel
    between s2 S3 or S1-S2 depending on the individual
  80. what are the terminal branches of the anterior iliac artery ?
    the internal pudental and the inferior gluteal
  81. what is the pathway of sperm
    seminiferous tubulesin the testis> head neck tail of epididymus >vas deferens joins with seminial vesiciles and empties into > ejaculatory duct> prostate>urethra.
  82. what is significant about the inteferior vesicle artery?
    • it is the equivalent of the vaginal artery which comes off of the uterinr artery in the females.
    • it anastomoses with the same artery on the contralateral side and the ispilater superior vesical artery
  83. what does the inferior vesicle artery supply in mean?
    the lower part of the urinary bladder, prostate, and the seminal vesicles
  84. in female the uterine what does the uterine artery supply
    the vagina, uterus, and lower part of the bladder
  85. what branch does the vaginal artery give off?
    the inferior vesicle artery
  86. what does the middle rectal artery supply in men adn woman?
    • the rectum
    • prostate( male) vagina( women)
  87. What does the internal pudendal artey supply?
    (4)the external genitalia, rectum, anal canal, and  perineum
  88. what are the two terminal branches of the internal pudendal artery?
    • the deep arttery of the penis and dorsal artery of the penis in male 
    • the deep artery of the clitoris and the dorsal artery of the clitoris in women
  89. what is the path of the internal pudendal nerve as it branches off of the anterior division/ trunk of the interal illiac?
    • it exits pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen and renters through the lesser sciatic foramen to get to the perineum 
    • within the perinieum the internal pudendal artery travels in the pudendal canal
  90. when does the internal pudendal artery branch off into its terminal branches?
    after it enter the deep perineal pouch
  91. protatic venous plexus
    the cluster of veins that drain the prostate
  92. what is the prostate?
    • contains the protatic uretha
    • spern passes through the prostate as it travels to the penis
  93. the frenulum of the penis
    • where the prepuce or foreskin meets the underside of the penis
    • runs from the shaft to the head
    • eleastic fold of skin that anchors the foreskin to the glands of the penis
  94. what are the 6 arteries that branch off of the anterior division of the interal illiac artery? and what side of the body are they going through?
    • the umbilical artery (r)
    • the obturator artery(r)
    • inferior vesicle/uterine artery/vaginal artery (r)
    • Middle rectal artery ( r)
    • Internal pudendal artery (r)
    • inferior gluteal artery ( left)
  95. what are the 3 branches of the posterior division of the internal illiac artery?
    • the iliolumbar (l) 
    • lateral sacral ( r)
    • superior gluteal( l)
  96. Bucks fascia
    • akak fascia of the penis
    • the deep dorsal vein runs within this fascia along the dorsal aspect of the penis
    • encases the c. covernosum and the c.spongiosum seperately
  97. Bucks fascia is the continuation of ehich structure?
    the external spermatic in the scrotum
  98. function of bucks fascia
    ancorhes the scrotal ligament and maintaint eh structural integrit y of the 3 erectile bodies of the penis
  99. tunica albuginea in relation to bucks fascia
    coonective tissue that covers the erectile bodies of the penis
  100. function of the tunica albuginea
    allowing blood flow through the deep artery of the penis so that an erection canbe maintaind
  101. what are the connective tissue later of the penis
    • dartos fascia ( sacrpas)
    • buck's fascia
    • tunica albuinea
  102. where does the superficial dorsal vein of the penis lie?
    between dartos and buks fascia
  103. what parts of the pancreas does the splenic artery branches supply
    the body neck and tail
  104. what is significant about the pancreatic branches of the splenic artery
    they all anatomose covering most of the pancrease
  105. what VT level is the SMA
  106. what is does the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artey supply and do ?
    • branches into anterior and superior
    • it supplies the uncinate of the pancreas specifically and head of the
  107. what does the middle colic supply
    the proximal 2/3 of the transverse colon and right colic flexuture aka the hepatice flexture
  108. what does the ileocolic colic supply
    the ower part of  the ascending colon ileum cecum, veriform appendix
  109. Openings of the diaphrgam
    I 8 10 EGGs AAT 12

    • inferior vena cava at T8
    • Esophagus and Vagus at T10
    • Aorta Azygos and Thoracic duct at T12

    • I 8 = IVC at T8
    • 10 EGGs = EsophaGus and vaGus at T10
    • AAT 12 = Aorta, Azygos, and Thoracic duct at T12.
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Anatomy Overview for Comp 2