Soc. Chapter 3

  1. What is Culture?
    The Totality of our shared language, knowledge, material objects, and behavior
  2. Society
    Consists of the structure of relationshiups within which culture is created and shared through regularized patterns of social interaction.
  3. Cultural Universals
    Common practices and beliefs shared by all societies.
  4. Sociobiology
    The systematic study of how biology affects human social behavior.
  5. Innovation
    The process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture through discovery or invention.
  6. Discovery
    The process of making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality.
  7. Invention
    The combination of existing cultural items into a form that did not exist before.
  8. Diffusion
    The process by which a cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society.
  9. Material Culture
    The physical or technological aspects of our daily lives.
  10. Nonmaterial culture
    Ways of using material objectis, as well as customs, ideas, expressions, beliefs, knowledge, philosophies, governments, and patterns of communication.
  11. Technology
    "Cultural infromation about how to use the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires".
  12. Culture Lag
    A period of adjustment when the nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions.
  13. Language
    A system of shared symbols; it includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions.
  14. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
    The idea that the language a person uses shapes his or her perception of reality an therefore his or her thoughts and actions.
  15. Nonverbal Communication
    The use of gestures, facial expressions, and other visual images to communicate.
  16. Value
    A collective conception of what is considered good, desirable, and proper-or bad, undesirable, and improper-in a culture.
  17. Norm
    An established standard of behavior mainained by a society.
  18. Formal Norm
    A norm that generally has been written down and that specifies strict punishments of violators.
  19. Laws
    Formal norms enforced by the state.
  20. Informal Norm
    A norm thtat is generally understood but not precisely recorded.
  21. Mores
    Norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society.
  22. Folkways
    Norms governing behavior, whose violation raise comparatively little concern.
  23. Sanction
    A penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm.
  24. Dominant Ideology
    A set of sultural beliefs and practices that legitimates existing powerful social, economic, and politcal interests.
  25. Subculture
    A segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the pattern of the larger society.
  26. Argot
    Specialized language used by members of a group or subculture.
  27. Counterculture
    A subculture that deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture.
  28. Culture Shock
    The feelings of disorientation, uncertainty, and even fear that people experience when they encounter unfamiliar cultural practices.
  29. Ethnocentrism
    The tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others.
  30. Cultural Relativism
    The viewing of people's behavior from the perspective of their own culture.
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Soc. Chapter 3
Chapter 3 note cards